Report of the Fourth International Conference on Phonetics and Knowledge Integration on: “Cognitive Integration between Phonetics and Quranic Recitations” 2019

Report of the Fourth International Conference on Phonetics and Knowledge Integration on the topic:

 “Cognitive Integration between Phonetics and Quranic Recitations”

On 23-24 October 2019

Knowledge Integration and Translation Laboratory at the Faculty of Letters and Human sciences in Marrakech and Al Kindi Center for Translation and Training in cooperation with Dar al-Hadith al-Hassani in Rabat organized the Fourth International Conference on Phonetics and Knowledge Integration on the topic: “Cognitive Integration between Phonetics and Quranic Recitations” in honor of the recitations scholar Sheikh Dr. Abdel-Hadi Hamito, on October 23 and 24, 2019 in Marrakech. The conference’s seminars included five scientific sessions, in addition to the opening session, the opening lecture, and the honoring session.

Opening session:

The opening session of the conference was chaired by Dr. Abdellah Al-Rashdi from Dar Al-Hadith Al-Hassania in Morocco. He mentioned that the science of Qur’anic readings is one of the most closely related sciences to the Holy Qur’an, as it is the basic entry point for understanding its meanings and verses. Dr. Abdellah Al-Rashdi praised the idea of honoring the scholar Sheikh Abdel Hadi Hamito who devoted his life to serving the Holy Qur’an. At the end of his speech, he welcomed all the guests and extended his special thanks to the Knowledge integration and Translation Laboratory, as well as Al Kindi Center for Translation and Training.

After that, Dr. Hassan Darir, Director of Knowledge Integration and Translation Laboratory, took the floor to welcome all participants from inside and outside Morocco, thanked the Dean of the College of Arts as well as the Director of Dar Al-Hadith Al-Hassania and praised their constructive cooperation with the laboratory. Dr. Darir explained that the cognitive integration between the science of readings and phonology is an urgent necessity; therefore, the aspects of this complementarity between these two sciences and its manifestations and areas of application must be disclosed. At the end, he renewed his thanks to all the attendees.

Then, Dr. Aziz Al-Khatib, on behalf of the director of Dar Al-Hadith Al-Hassania, started his speech. He mentioned that each science is distinguished as it is unique and specializes in a specific field. However, the matter differs in the study of the Qur’an, because the sciences here are integrated to serve the Holy Book, and seek to clarify the meanings and interpretation of the Qur’an. Therefore, this is the aim of Cognitive integration between phonology and the science of readings.

Finally, Dr. Abdel Aziz Ait Baha on behalf of Dr. Abdel Hamid Zahid, Director of Al Kindi Center for Translation and Training, took the floor to welcome the attendees and all those who contributed to the success of this conference, and pointed out that the goal of this conference lies in two things:

– Discussing the issues raised by the integration between phonology and the science of readings, along with reconsidering scientifically many common concepts between the two sciences.

– To stand once again a pause of respect and appreciation that perpetuates the culture of recognizing the beautiful among successive generations through honoring Sheikh Allama, Dr. Abdel-Hadi Hamito. He renewed his thanks and welcome to the participants from different parts of Morocco and outside the country and all the members contributing to the success of the conference activities.

The first scientific session:

The Opening Lecture: ” Sibawayh’s book in the literature of Moroccan readers”

The scholar Dr. Abdel-Hadi Hamito began his lecture by thanking the organizers of the conference. He proceeded to explain the context of his scientific topic, and the reasons for choosing his title. He said: The most worthy figure and book in which knowledge converges and in which cognitive integration is achieved is the personality of Imam Sibawayh and his book The Sea. Dr. Abdel-Hadi Hamito focused on studying this science by analyzing different aspects that have not been investigated by many scholars. The reason behind choosing this book is its impact on the Moroccan reader who gilded its doctrines. This influence is represented in the Moroccan literature poetry and prose. This impact cannot be found in the eastern reader. He also explained why he used the term “readers” instead of schools because Moroccans and Andalusia people had studied various sciences in mosques.

Dr. Hamito then mentioned the sections of his written research, which came as follows: introduction, preliminary, and four chapters: The first: Sibawayh and his impressive book, the second: The Hornet issue and the plight of Sibawayh facing it, the third: Moroccans Manifestations for Sibawayh’s book, What has been said about it and its author, the fourth: What has been said in reading Sibawayh’s books organized in the literature of Moroccan reciters. Finally, the conclusion: in which he mentioned that sunset the book, and the possibilities of bringing it back when teaching in our institutes and colleges.

In his lecture, Dr. Hamito focused on the third topic because of its importance, bearing in mind time limit of the lecture. the number of pages exceeds eighty. Among the most important points mentioned in the lecture:

– The interest of Moroccans in the book of Sibawayh was great, while the majority of orientalists deviated from it to books of other scholars who came after, such as the cooler, the glass, the glass, and Abi Ali Al-Farsi …

– Sibawayh’s book did not reach Andalusia and Morocco until the late third or early fourth centuries of Hijra, the scholars unanimously agreed that the true pioneer of the book is: Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Qurtubi, known as Al-Rabahi.

– Dr. Hamito presented several works of Andalusian scholars about Sibawayh and his book, such as Al-Shantamri, Ibn Kharouf, Al-Batloussi, Ibn Tarawa, and Al-Shloobin … who came to serve the book with explanations, notes, comments, and jokes…

At the end of this discreet scientific intervention, Dr. Hamito pointed out with sadness that the interest the book should get is disappointing. The reason behind this according to Dr. Hamito is that the focus began on small texts, such as the Ajrami and the Millennium of Ibn Malik. Thus, the course of the grammatical lesson in the Moroccan schools was based on these texts. Dr. Abdel-Hadi asked: Can our institutions use Sibawayh’s Book again? So it can be used in language lessons and revive again by choosing assets from it within the prescribed lessons, to give it the value it deserves and benefit from its guidance.

The Second Scientific Session:

The second scientific session, chaired by Dr. Abdel Qader Hamdi from Al-Qadi Ayyad University – Morocco, opened with an intervention by Dr. Hosseini Abu Bakr from the University of Ouargla, Algeria, entitled: “The phonetic Rules in the Quranic Recitation Resources: concept, types, and applications”. This intervention covered the concepts of these rules at three levels: the level of oral performance, the level of written formation, and the level of intellectual analysis.

Each of these levels has components, properties, and applications. Then he talked about how these rules contribute to the formulation of phonetic theory, through the resources of Quranic readings, by tracking the various phonetic contexts and their implications, while highlighting the formation of these rules along with their theoretical and applied levels, and how their concept, types and applications contributed to shaping the phonetic dimension in its various cognitive and methodological details.

Then the professor, Dr. Al-Musawarah from the University of Mu’tah in Jordan, took the floor to deliver an intervention entitled “Reading (inaa ʔanṭaynaka ʔl-kawthar إنا أنطيناك الكوثر) a new linguistic approach”, where he tried to present a new interpretation to justify the two recitations received from the Messenger, peace be upon him, for the first verse of Surat ʔl-kawthar, as he (PBUH) read it once إنا أعطيناك (inaa ʔaʕṭaynaka)and read again إنا     أنطيناك(inaa ʔanṭaynaka), after he rejected the idea of the modernists to replace the letter “ʕayn“ with the letter “noon“ referred to by more than one of the ancients, and rejected the justifications of some of the modernists as their saying that the verb (أنطى) (ʔanṭa) is from the Semitic languages and has evolved from the verb (آتى)  (aata) or the verb نطا (nataa) Orأنطى(Anta). He concluded that the word (أنطى) (Anta) evolved from the verb (أندى) (Andaa), and he reinforced his hypothesis with phonemic analysis that confirms the possibility of the inversion of the sign طاء (taa)

Then professor, Dr. Al-Musawarah from the University of Mu’tah in Jordan, took the floor to deliver an intervention entitled “Reading (inaa ʔanṭaynaka ʔl-kawthar إنا أنطيناك الكوثر) a new linguistic approach”, where he tried to present a new interpretation to justify the two recitations received from the Messenger, peace be upon him, for the first verse of Surat ʔl-kawthar, as he (PBUH) read it once إنا أعطيناك (inaa ʔaʕṭaynaka) and read again إنا أنطيناك (inaa ʔanṭaynaka), after he rejected the idea of the modernists to replace the letter “ʕayn“ with the letter “noon“ referred to by more than one of the ancients, and rejected the justifications of some of the modernists as their saying that the verb (أنطى) (ʔanṭa) is from the Semitic languages and has evolved from the verb (آتى)  (aata) or the verb نطا (nataa) Orأنطى(Anta). He concluded that the word (أنطى) (Anta) evolved from the verb (أندى) (Andaa), and he reinforced his hypothesis with phonemic analysis that confirms the possibility of the inversion of the sign طاء (taa).

After that, Dr. Mohamed Saleh Bouafia, a professor at the University of Ouargla in Algeria, took the floor to present his research under the title: “Releases of the recitation term and its significance on the phonetic phenomenon (the term ʔalif al-idkhal wa al-imala wa al-sakt, as a model)”, after the introduction he divided his presentation into three sections; the first was devoted to talking about ʔalif al-idkhal and its releases. In the second, he dealt with al-imala and its releases; in two sections: the first is al-imala al kobra and its releases, and the second is al-imala al-ṣoughra and its releases. As for the third and final topic, he talked about al-sakt and its releases, then he concluded his talk with a set of results that he came to in his research.

This was followed by an intervention by Dr. Ghania Bouhouch from the University of Muhammad Al-Siddiq Bin Yahya Jijel in Algeria, entitled: “The Recitation Phonetic Term in Abu Amr Al-Dany`s al-mounabiha”, in this intervention Dr. Bouhouch attempted to display and monitor the recitation phonetic term through the study of the of Abu Amr Al-Dany`s poem al-mounabiha. And before presenting the recitation phonetic terms she tracked, she provided a brief definition of the hymn “ al-ʔarajouza“ and its author as a leading scholar of the Moroccan recitation school, then she moved to display some of the recitation terms: such as: Places of articulation terms, Manner of articulation, in addition to the terminology of various phonemic phenomena.

And the researcher holds that Al-Danny adopted a different approach in his poem, as it was characterized by its terminological richness, diversity. She also indicated that the poem had an educational goal, which was guidance to some of the methods of experimental phonetic self-disclosure.

Then she concluded that the Al-Danny had a precise phonemic sense, which enabled him to realize the reality of the various phonetic phenomena, to notice the differences between them, and then to describe them, compare them, and select the appropriate term to denote them, as she confirmed in her results on the affirmation of the link between phonology and the science of recitation.

It was followed by the intervention of Dr. Muhammad bin Hajar, from the University of Yahya Fares – Al-Medea – Algeria, with the title: “ḥurūf muqaṭṭaʿāt“ (disjoined letters)in the opening of the suras between phonology and the science of recitation.” He started his talk by presenting a brief look at the consideration of Islamic scholars to the letters in general and the “”disjoined letters””in particular.

The first of the axes presented by the professor were related to the “disjoined letters” in phonology and meanings, and the professor divided this axis into two parts. The first part is concerned with the “disjoined letters” in phonology, while the second part deals with the “disjoined letters” in the science of recitations. The presenter divided this point into sub points: “disjoined letters” and scholars of number, “disjoined letters” and Wakf, “disjoined letters”and Lengthening, disjoined letters and deviation, and finally disjoined letters and diphthong.

The researcher concluded his presentation by indicating that his handling of some of the writings of Islamic scholars on the opening verse in disjoined letters, in his research is limited to the phonetic and reading aspect. And that this research still needs to be clarified.

The Third Scientific Session:

Dr. Said Muhammed AlQarni, who is the dean of the Arabic language faculty in Umm al-Qura University – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has chaired the workshop of this session. He addressed his first speech to Dr. Said Ben Ali AlGhamdi from the same university in order to present his intervention entitled: ‘The Phonetic Guidlines of Yazid Ben Qatib Ashami’s Reading – Presentation and Study’. After thanking the conference organizing committees, Dr. AlGhamdi highlighted the fact that the reading of Yazid Ben Qatib belongs to the rare readings, it is one origin from the ‘Hearing origins’. The presenter said he has investigated the phonetic phenomena in the reading under study and collected the phonetic guidlines it holds. He clarified that his research includes an introduction, a conclusion and two researches. He presented the translation of Yazid Ben Qatib in the first research, while he elaborated on the phonetic instructions in Yazid Ben Qatib’s reading in the second. One of the phonetic phenomena, he extracted, is the phonetic adequacy ‘المناسبة الصوتية’, and some examples about that are: his reading by imitation ‘الإتباع’, alteration ‘الإبدال’ and ‘Idgham’ (assimilation) ‘الإدغام’. He also mentioned that Ibn Qatib read differently from the graphics of the Holy Qur’an and he used the phenomena of linguistic diversity, phonetic variety and mitigated reading.

Next, Dr. Saif Eddine Alfuqaraa, from Mu’tah University – Jordan, presented his intervention characterized by the vocal variation ‘المغايرة الصوتية’ and its impact on the orientation of the Qur’anic readings. He included facets of vocal variation and its influence on directing the Qur’anic readings. He defined the concept of variation and the terms that have been used for it. Then, he described the way research has been developed by ancient and modern scholars. He explained the variation manifestations in directing readings and scholars’ opinions about the matter. He demonstrated his results through the following elements: variation between vowels and between consonants in the Qur’anic readings, the ways of phonetic variation in QRs, and readings’ variation in QRs; its reasons and denotations. His research was successful in underlining knowledge integration between the science of Readings, phonetics and the role of phonetics in directing the phenomenon.

Then, Dr. Ibrahim Tabchi, from Ouargla University – Algeria, presented his paper entitled ‘The Phenomenon of Nunation ‘التنوين’ Phonetically and Grammatically and Its Application on Warsh ‘ورش’ and Hafs ‘حفص’ Narrations’. He started by proposing the different kinds of nunation in the Semitic languages. He moved to the use of nunation by grammarians and linguists; highlighting their opinions about this phenomenon. He reminded, at the same time, that nunation belongs to the Noun properties. The presenter explored nunation from the point of view of the scholars of readings and the most interesting matters they foregrounded. Concerning the difference between Qur’anic readings, he mentioned that this issue is limited to what Imam Zarqani quoted from Imam Razi; and that does not exceed the seven dialects. The last part of his intervention was devoted to presenting the aspects of difference in the nunation phenomenon between Warsh and hafs. He restricted these aspects in the linguistic and individual difference, and rhythmic phonetic difference. Finally, he explored the nunation’s equivalence in some Semitic languages. He underlined the interests of the grammarians, linguists and scholars of Tajwid (Recitation) ‘التجويد’, and their disagreement around the issue.

The next presentation was that of Dr. Nazik Ibrahim Abdelfattah from University of Ain Shams – Egypt. Its title is: ‘The Phonetic Variables in the Qur’anic Readings’. In her introduction, Dr. Nazik delimited the field of study of sounds’ articulation and its features. In fact, phonologists and scholars of readings agree that the process of articulation is gradual concerning sounds articulated from the same area. The professor discussed the point of different readings in connection with various Arab dialects. The Holy Qur’an, for a divine reason, is revealed through different Arab dialects, to be understood by all Arabs. She presented some phenomena of this difference such as al-kaskasa,’الكسكسة‘  al-kashkasha,’الكشكشة‘  al-’an’ana’العنعنة‘  and al-istintā ’الاستنطاء‘. She concluded by confirming the impossibility to determine the aspects of difference of the Arab dialects. Plus, the presenter elaborated on the phonetic variables; she explained that the term phonetic variable ‘المتغيرالصوتي’ leads to phonetic image in phonology. She emphasized the role of Sibawayh سيبويه in establishing this term; as he indicated that the term is a different type of the pronunciation of some sounds. As a conclusion, she pointed to some results concerning allām ‘اللام’, arrā ‘الراء’ and al-hamza‘الهمزة’ through what she has extracted from some phonetic images. She considers Sibawayh سيبويه a pioneer in this kind of studies before other modernizers deal with issues of this kind.

Dr. Abderrahmane Maachi from Emir Abdelkader University of Islamic sciences from Algeria presented a research under the name of ‘The Manifestations of Phonetic Orientation and Its Impact on the Criticism of the Qur’anic Readings’. The intervener started by thanking the organizing committees, then, he defined the meaning of phonetic orientation and readings criticism. He stressed on the idea that the Qur’anic readings criticism is one of the areas of research that need more attention and care. He presented a problematic by asking; to what extent is the phonetic level present in the QRs criticism? What is the impact? After that, he analyzed eleven examples of phonetic orientation in the criticism of QRs to unveil the manifestations of the topic under study.

The following presentation was given by Dr. Omar Ben Ammi from Ibn Zohr University from Morocco, and was entitled ‘The Expressive Value in the Qur’anic Sounds’. The research starts with a hypothesis stating that the sounds’ expressive value derives its legitimacy from the sounds themselves. In addition, the phonetic analysis provides richness and abundance to the meaning of the Qur’anic Readings difference, which harmonizes with the semantic focus of the Qur’anic discourse. This research has, actually, answered the question of the relationship between sound and its expressive value through the diversity of QRs, starting with Surat Annas and other Qur’anic Ayat ‘آيات’ as applied models. The researcher has achieved significant outcomes; e.g., the difference in QRs trough the phonetic addition, reduction or diversity of its form and articulation… is enriching the semantic focus through the expressive value generated from the phonetic accumulation and the characteristics of sounds themselves. There is no contradiction in denotations resulted from the diversity of readings, whereas, there is complementarity and harmony. The approach of QRs in the light of the relationship between the semantic and phonetic components necessitates a high degree of prudence and, also, mastery of phonetics. Besides, it requires considering sound then meaning and not the opposite. Thus, phonology can open wide dimensions to semantics.

It was then followed by the intervention of Dr. Saeed Ibn Muhammad Al Yazid, from Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia. The title of his presentation is “The Impact of Performance on the Deviation of Connotation.” Dr. Al Yazid mentioned the importance of the topic and the reasons for choosing it. Also, he stated the method used in his research.

Dr. Al Yazid listed the aims of his research. For instance, chapter one dealt with the aspects of the deviation of connotation due to the deviation of the performance of the letter, and chapter two presented the reasons for the violation in the performance of the letter. He also presented during his talk about the causes of this violation, the methods and attempts made by the ancients to overcome this phenomenon. Finally, he talked about the results of his research including:

-The agreement of modern studies with the old Arabic linguistic studies on the reasons for the violation in the performance of letters.

-Linguists, grammarians and readers of ancient and modern times have made strenuous efforts in evaluating the performance of Arabic letters, especially the melody that are in  the letters, and leads to phonological and syntactic errors that deviate in the intended meaning to another uninhabited.

-The research tackled the reasons for the violation in the performance of letters, including organic and inorganic ones, such as social, psychological, educational, and genetic.

The Fourth Scientific Session:

In the second day of the conference, four interventions have been presented chaired by Dr. Abdullah bin Ruqayyah, Professor at Dar Al-Hadith Al-Hassania – Morocco. The first one was presented by Dr. Said Ibn Mohamed Al-Qarni under the title “The Physical Sound and the Linguistic Sound in The Balance of Differentiation and Integration “. Dr. Al-Qarni clarified the context in which this research is included. He also talked about the problematic of the term. He defined the following terms lexically and terminologically: sound, physics, physical sound, language and linguistic sound, indicating their relations with some other terms.

The second intervention was done by Dr. Jilali Bin Fariha from the University Center Ahmed bin Yahya Al-Wanrashisi in Tissemeslit, Algeria, under the title: “Voice Explanation to set the thousand links in the Qur’anic reading of Nafi’s Reading”. Dr. Bin Fariha mentioned several scientific problems related to “Hamza Al-Wasl “and” Alif Al-Wasl “. Then he listed some questions related to this issue. After that, he showed the cases of “Alif Al-Wasl”. He gave examples from a set of Quranic verses. Then he concluded that the research on the topic of “Quranic Rasm” is an accurate subject that is subject to certain rules approved by the people of reading and Tajweed.

The third intervention was made by Dr. Naguib Al-Ammari, from the Multidisciplinary College of Nador – Morocco, entitled: “Guiding the phenomena of the Ottomani Rasm and its effect on revealing the meanings of the readings: Al-Tohami Al-Rajhi’s attempt as a model”. He began his paper by defining the Ottomani Rasm.  Then he went on to explain the relationship of Quranic Rasm to recurrent Quranic readings. The professor showed some examples of the Qur’anic verses that prove the relationship of Rasm to readings and the result of all this.He presented some issues and models related to Quranic recitations and the Ottomani Rasm, stopping at some models indicating the connection of Quranic meanings to Rasm. In this regard, he expressed his support for some statements of Professor Dr. Al-Tohamy Al-Raji Al-Hashemi. The last intervention was presented by Dr. Mohamed Ould Daly, a professor at Yahia Fares University in Algeria, under the title: “Quranic reading ranks and levels of linguistic use phoneme characteristics: an analytical descriptive study”. He first spoke about Quranic reading and the science of readings. Then, he described the second topic about the ranks of the Qur’anic reading among readers and their importance, and in the third topic, he explained the levels of language use, as he explained in the fourth topic the relationship of the Arabic language to the levels of Quranic reading, then he concluded his speech with a comprehensive summary of his research. The Fifth Scientific Session:This session was chaired by Dr. Aziz Al-Khatib, Professor at Dar Al-Hadith Al-Hassania – Morocco, opened with an intervention by Dr. Nadra Salama from the Higher Institute of Languages ​​in Tunisia entitled under: “Voice explanation for drawing this metonymy in the ten readings”. The researcher discussed at the beginning of her intervention the concept of “haa” metonymy. Then she moved to talk about the “haa” metaphor in the Ottomani Rasm, whether it is large or small, to determine by that its characteristics and advantages, and then explained the physiological significance of the “Silaa”. Finally, I explained in detail the “haa” metonymy and its controls, whether in the verses agreed upon between the readers or the verses that differ between them.   This was followed by an intervention of Dr. Mohamed Al-Taqi and Professor Sarah Dhab from Mohamed V University in Morocco, under the title: “The glottal stop use in Qur’anic readings: a three-dimensional study.” The intervention started from the assumption that the ultimate representation of the context in which the glottal stop may be present is the same in relation to all readings, and that the differences and variations that distinguish a reading from another are linked to the effective controls in regulating the relationships between the components of the Arabic word, and that the diversity of the glottal stop usage at the level of phoneme verification is a subject related to a network at a higher level than the segmental level; this is what is known as the supra-segment level.              The purpose of the research is to use what is presented the readings and studies that have been done in this framework in order to clarify the features of the Arabic tongue, as it is a rich system with an internal grammatical diversity that includes various variants of the Arabic tongue.    The researchers also presented the conditions of the glottal stop in the Quranic readings and the classifications they were subjected to, both at the level of phenomena related to its usage: investigation, deletion, facilitation, transfer, … or at the level of the context in which it was presented in the Holy Quran. They have stated the most important foundations of the theory adopted by them in the analysis and interpretation of the data studied.

Then the floor was given to Dr. Mohamed El Fathi from the Regional Center for Education and Training Professions – Fez – Morocco to deliver an intervention entitled: “Phonemic analogous processes between Quranic readings and the modern phonological perspective”. This paper examines the study of phonemic analogy as a fundamental phenomenon in the phonetic form of the Arabic language. The researcher proceeded his study from a basic hypothesis stating that the analogous is a multidimensional phoneme phenomenon that is governed by purely prosodic and phonological restrictions that extend beyond the purely the phonetic and auditory dimension. If it has a physical phonetic nature, then it also has a cognitive form.

After that, the researcher sought to reformulate its principles and processes the way it is presented by the science of Qur’anic Readings. A process taking into account a set of theoretical, methodological and conceptual tools which is fed by the efforts of phonological generative and modern prosodic theories. Besides, he explored some of the phonetic level issues in the Qur’anic readings concerning aspects of analogy and its phonetic justifications.

He concluded that the analogy is one of the most significant phenomena of the phonetic variation in the Arabic language. A matter that received a detailed study in the science of Qur’anic readings. As a result, it provided the modern phonetic Arab research with phonetic knowledge that is processed through investing the concepts of phonetics, modern phonology and its data. It was, actually, a possibility to perceive it as multidimensional processes combining the pronunciational, auditory and cognitive levels. The new generation of modern generative models of phonology is, in fact, providing us with tools of re-describing this analogy and modelling its processes.

The next intervention was given by Dr. Adraoua Youssef from University of Sultan Moulay Slimane-Morocco, entitled: ‘‘The Phonological Restrictions and Lineal Graphic Issues in the Qur’anic Readings’’. He focused on phonological restrictions that govern the issues of lineal graphic in QRs. He examined the the stress (تشديد) phenomenon of the Arabic letter ta’ التاء)), in ElBazi’s reading, through defining the elision constraints in one of ta’ التاء)) letters, in the present tense, of the verbs such as;”تتنزل”  resulting in “تنزل” (v. to descend), within the framework of nonlinear phonology presented in the work of Goldsmith (1976, 1990), McCarthy (1979, 1981, 1982), Clements (1985), Sagi (1986), and others. Two elements are focused on: the first element was devoted to the theoretical scope; where he clarifies that the knowledge integration between phonetic and QRs sciences are based on phonological-morphological constraints. The second deals with the multilineal reperesentation of the elision of the letter ta’ التاء)) in the lineal graphic of ElBazi reading.

The presenter shared the following findings :

– The interpretation of some phonetic phenomena in Qur’anic readings is governed by purely phonological restrictions.

– Phonetics and the science of readings share the subject of study which is the vocal sound, not the letter that is the subject of the science of drawing, and does not record the spoken voice.

– Phonetic and nonlinear congruence confirm the insufficiency of the perceptions of the ancient Arab linguists in explaining the phonetic phenomena in the Qur’anic readings.

– The independent sound pieces can explain the problems that result in weakening, not only in syntactic structures, but even in issues of Qur’anic readings as well as in “al-Bazi” reading.

The last intervention was a joint work between Dr. Fatima Akhdoujou from Al-Qadi Ayyad University in Morocco, and Dr. Abdul Azim bin Muhammad Issa from Mara University of Technology, Malaysia. The presentation was entitled: “Vocalization Differences in the Holy Quran in the Light of Modern phonetics”.   The intervention presented a modern phonetic study of the rules of vocalization in the Holy Qur’an by adopting the standard model in generative sounds, and the theory of distinctive features, without neglecting the efforts of the ancient scholars in this field. Then the paper dealt with a description of each sound separately by identifying its distinctive features, with proposing and formulating phonetic grammar (formal Aspect), as well as its interpretation (non-formal aspetc). Researchers relied on a book which was published in the ten readings as a main source for the models of this article, as it is among the most important and richest books in the field of Quranic readings.

Honorary Session

Chaired by Dr. Moulay Mustapha Abou Hazem from- Cadi Ayyad University, who spoke in the beginning of his speech about what characterizes the Translation and Knowledge Integration Laboratory; which is honoring Moroccan scholars in conferences organized by the laboratory, also praised and thanked the organizing committee and in particular Dr. Abdelhamid Zahid- director of Al-Kindi Center for Translation and Training, who contributed to the success of this Scientific Forum.

The speech of the speakers was all about Dr. Abdelhadi Hmito’s achievments, and all agreed about his wide knowledge and his contributions to the science of Holy Quran. Also, the testimonies  referred to the scientific path of the Honorary guest in all its periods.

At the end of this honorary session, Dr Moulay Mustapha Abou Hazem expressed his happiness and referred to the success of this international conference. Then, Dr Abderahim Ben Ali, Faculty of Arts and Humanities-Cadi Ayyad’s dean delivered the Honorary shield to the Honored guest, Dr. Abdelhadi Hmito.












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