Report of the Second International Honoring Conference on the theme: “Renewing the Terminology and Concepts in Contemporary Islamic Thought”, paying tribute to the efforts of Moroccan Philosopher Taha Abdul Rahman 2015

Report of the Second International Honoring Conference on the theme: “Renewing the Terminology and Concepts in Contemporary Islamic Thought”, paying tribute to the efforts of Moroccan Philosopher Taha Abdul Rahman 2015


The Faculty of Arts and Humanities – Marrakesh (Cady Ayyad University) and the faculty of Arabic Language – Marrakesh (Quarawyin University) hosted the proceedings of the second international honoring conference on the theme: “Renewing the terminology and concepts in Contemporary Islamic Thought” paying tribute to the efforts of Moroccan philosopher Prof. Dr. Taha Abdurahman. The conference was jointly organized by the Laboratory of “Translation and the complementarily of disciplines” and “the structure of the Research in the Arabic Language :Descriptions and Problems” – Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Marrakesh ;and also in coordination with the “Research Team in Education and Translation” , Faculty of Arts and Humanities – Agadir, The Faculty of the Arab Language – Marrakech, and the “Translation Studies, Communication And Literature Research Laboratory (TCL) – Faculty of Arts and Humanities –El Jadida on May the 6th and 7th 2015. The Opening Session The Conference was presided by Dr. Mohammed Azhari Dean of the faculty of Arabic Language, and was opened by recitation of Verses from the Holy Quran, followed by Professor Hisham Al-raji’i. The word of Mr. President of Cadi Ayyad University of- Marrakech was presented on his behalf by Dr. Saeed Boujrouf vice dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Marrakech. After he had thanked all the organizers of the Conference ,he expressed his gratitude to philosopher Taha Abdul Rahman for accepting the invitation.He then explained that the theme of the conference -“Renewing terminology and building concepts”- is of great importance in the foundation of an independent philosophical thought that is conscious of the peculiarities of the cultural , the historical and current Islamic contexts ; opening up on the philosophical humanitarian law but without falling in the inclinations of westernization and alienation. The Word of Ms. dean of the Faculty of Arts Marrakech was presented on her behalf by Dr. Saeed Bugrov vice Dean of Faculty of Arts and Humanities Marrakech. After expressing her gratitude, she emphasized the added value of the Conference in so far as it examined the heritage of the philosopher Taha Abdul Rahman, the symbol of renewal in the Arab Islamic thought today ,who has enriched philosophical , intellectual and logical research with Arab leading and renovating studies . Address by Mr. Dean of the faculty of the Arabic Language in Marrakesh Dr. Mohamed al-Azhari entitled Taha Abdul Rahman about half a century of renovation and construction. Address by Mr. Coordinator of Taha Abdul Rahman’s Conferences, presented by Dr. Ahmed Karroum.He announced the beginning of the third session of the conference which is to be organized by the University of Shoaib Al Dokkali, El Jadida and explained that the marches of Taha Abdul Rahman’s conferences started from Agadir to Marrakech and then to other stations, God willing. The speech of the Director of (TCL), Faculty of Arts and Humanities-University of Choaib doukkali-El Jadida was presented by Dr Yahya benkhadah. After thanking the organizers,he announced that University of El Jadida would host the third Congress honoring Taha Abdul Rahman and that its theme would be announced at the end of the Conference. The Word of the organizing body: presented by Dr Abd Al- Hamid Zahid who thanked and welcomed the presence, stressing the fact that this series of conferences serve as a second station, seeking to emancipate the minds. He praised Taha Abdul-Rahman‘s good morals and character and finally prayed for him. First session: This session was chaired by Dr. Mustafa Abu Hazem (University of Cadi Ayyad-Marrakech) where Dr. Taha Abdul Rahman delivered his inaugural lecture entitled “etymologization of the scientific term: psychoanalytic model”, a subject not addressed yet .It is intended to highlight the possibility of developing the etymology of scientific term as it is common knowledge that the position of the scientific term differs from that of the intellectual or literary, in that the scientific term is characterized with neutrality , objectivity and universality . However, according to the doctor, common knowledge does not mean sincerity and accuracy .In general, the etymologization of terms according to Dr Tahais “building it on considerations of the pragmatic field specific to any society at the linguistic, dogmatic or the cognitive level”. To adjust the scientific term and prevent it from not spreading, Dr. Taha took four decisions: – The first one: To limit the consideration to specific areas choosing the analytical terminology. – The second one: To address this term through one of the French psychological analysts following Freud; it is Jacques Lacanfor a variety of considerations that he mentioned. – The third one: To limit work on analytical terms in Jacques Lacan, and specifically in the area of “proposition”. – The fourth one: To follow a logical rather than a chronological method in dealing with the terminology within the proposition scope. He stated that what interested him in discussing Lacan ‘s research are the mechanisms he undertook in setting his terminology in the field of “ proposition” on the basis of the first definition known as “the First Teaching” and a second definition known as “the Second Teaching”. After defining the general framework and his method of research, Dr Taha started disclosing those mechanisms trying to elaborate the ideas despite the difficulty to decipher and understand the language. Four major types of mechanisms were addressed. The first: mechanisms of rhetorical etymology specific to metaphorical presentation. And it is divided into two mechanisms: the linguistic meaning and the rhetoric meaning. The second: mechanisms of gratification proposition which the philosopher divided by its very nature to three aspects; the first mechanism is deductive analogy; the second: the coordinating derivation (a), and the mechanism of derivation (b). The third mechanism is acoustic similarity which he divided into five types. The third among the four mechanisms related to proposition is the mechanism of religious etymology specific to metaphorical proposition, identified by Dr. Taha in two types: mechanisms of religious etymology (a) and mechanisms of religious etymology (b).He addressed the belief in the first sin including other details, as well as the belief of the revealed sharia including also many details. In the second mechanism specific to metaphorical proposition, Dr. Taha dealt with the beliefs of the father’s names and the names of God as well as to other issues in detail. The fourth: the final mechanism was labelled as religious etymology specific to metaphorical proposition, speaking on the belief in God’s teachings of names to man, and the belief of trinity. Dr Taha Abdul Rahman presented all those great mechanisms and the related sections of the types and details with examples and charts clearly illustrating the mechanisms undertaken by Jacques Lacan in etymologizing of scientific term. Eventually, Dr Taha Abdul Rahman ended with conclusions revealing the possibility to etymologize the scientific term, and demonstrating the right approach in undertaking such task. The second scientific session which was chaired by Dr. Hamo Nakkari (University of – Mohamed Fifth Rabat started at three p.m .A group of virtuous professors presented their research papers) .The meeting began with Dr. Hadi Nahr (jadara University – Jordan), who presented a research entitled “heritage, religion and Modernity in the thought of Taha Abdel Rahman: A reading in concepts and patterns and terminology. Dr. Hadi dealt with the trilogy of heritage and religion and modernity and terminology through the enlightened innovation of Taha Abdul Rahman according to the nature of the deep questions and hypotheses put forward by this virtuous intellectual who did not only go beyond the borders of analysis, description and construction, but also made use of proof and exploration and dialogue based on understanding the other. Then, he explained the concept of heritage in Dr. Taha Abdel Rahman‘s point of view, emphasizing the conditions of studying, considering and benefiting from it positively in the present and in building the future. The heritage was our starting point in demonstrating the terms that resulted from it , came out of it, and returned to it as terminology: “modernity” , “contemporaneity” , “thought” , “absurd” , “ethics” ,”fake modernist” , and rules of expansion, and the selection , arrangement and projection of Western concepts to Islamic ideals. Every era has its knowledge, science and data. The task of intellectuals is to weigh up the data from the past and their creations with what is said and created today. It refers to points of convergence and divergence in accordance with an analytical and argumentative approach that accepts other interlocutors and does not reject them. Taha Abdul Rahman, the Moroccan thinker, has exceeded according to the researcher the boundaries of specialty, and limits of geography .He is an authority in contemporary Arab thought and a principal token of science known to all Arab intellectuals in the east and the west. Also, the researcher revealed different areas in the thought of Taha which could be followed by intellectuals in the Arab and Muslim world especially as scientific research has undergone serious brittleness ; at a time when the fascination with modernity and the quest for imitating the other becomes the most prominent hallmark in University research communities- according to him . The second intervention entitled “Intellectual Creativity as a Way to Proliferate Terminology: the experience of Taha Abdul Rahman as a model”. Dr Abdulmalek boumnijel (University of Setif, Algeria) insisted on several points: 1. The term industry is associated with that of thought: Dr. Abdul Rahman produced many ideas and concepts producing thus and creating terms. 2. Dr. Taha Abdel Rahman advocate of creativity and diligence:Aboumenjal expressed Dr. Taha Abdel Rahman’s independence in thought and innovation and philosophical creativity relying on consistent philosophy research which advocates that the origin of philosophy should be to recognize the philosopher as free and is also the right of all people to philosophy according to their cultural specificity taking into consideration the historical, and social philosophy of this nation. 3. The term “Altahawy”is an outcome of intellectual creation: Dr. Aboumenjal pointed out that whomever reads Dr. Taha Abdel Rahman‘s research, would note the remarkable presence of foreign references. There is also a presence of originality in his research and its share of creativity. This enables it to access a clear plan which is not intended to adopt imported thinking but rather seeks to question it. Dr. Mohamed Adiwan (Faculty of Arts and Humanities – Rabat) contributed with a research entitled “Toward an interpretative innovative Arabic thought: Reading In the thinking of Taha Abdul Rahman”. In the beginning he expressed the depth of the philosophical, intellectual Islamic thinking of Taha Abdul Rahman. He also praised the new intellectual and humanitarian project of the thinker through which he aims to establish a mind that goes beyond interpretation to emphasize moral and humanitarian privacy of the thought and other ideas. Perhaps the thought project announced by Taha Abdul Rahman aims to: Focus and search for the privacy of the innovative, interpretative and enlightening mind in addition to the first basis of the human mind. The specificity of the enlightened mind enables us to humanize reason. The plan of humanism or creative plan that the philosopher Taha defends is attempting to place Man in the first rank, of course without withholding the Divine Entity .That is a new humanitarian thinking horizon admitting that the presence of human reality is linked to the existence of Allah. The moralization of reason: another treatment that confirms that morality is part of religion and not merely a set of customs outside the scope of the religion. Therefore understanding the religious text is subject primarily to a moral principle; that means that reason imposes on itself some moral law facilitating, thus, an ethical manner of understanding religion. Specificity of historical reason makes of the religious text a text that could not be outside the limits of time and the frame or certain conditions. The religious text is valid for all times as it is subject to the divine wisdom. Specificity of renovating and generating thinking to abolish the limits of interpretation which must not be contrary to the legislative texts. Renewal of reason imposes control on the religious text in an exhaustive manner within a comprehensive legislative interest. Invitation to depart from imitation and setting an open and everchanging model. Since difference is mercy for Muslims, its aim is to unify the juristic doctrines and gathering them within the scope of the jurisprudence of the uniform legislative. Dr Adiwane insisted that it is necessary to probe deeper in all the specificities as well as adopting Dr Taha Abdurahman’s model and exploiting it in promoting the philosophical thought besides his efforts in translation. In addition to the area of doctrinal implications of legislation taking into account the interests of the nation. The third intervention was represented by Dr. Amara an-nasir (University of Mostaganem – Algeria) under the title: “The cognitive and historical frontiers of Taha Abdurahman ‘s project of concept building” . The Professor started by greeting and praising the organizing committee. He then set out to clarify the meaning of the border of knowledge in order not to fall into confusion. Therefore the concept of the border is but the knowledge-related frameworks that are formed when any intellectual project has reached maturity and we have to recognize the borders to see the possibilities created by the thinking mind. This intervention includes four axes: The first axis: The project of sense resumption .It answers the question to what extent we need concepts. The second axis: The history of the concept and the human experience. It answers the following question: How a concept is understood in the historical process?. The third axis: The cognitive borders of concepts and they includes two borders: anchoring concepts and denotative depletion of concepts. It answers the question: What is left from concepts if we have not thought yet? The fourth axis: The possibility of thinking without concepts. It answers the question: Can philosophy change its shape and still remain a philosophy? These axes start from a basic premise; it is the need to relate the pragmatic aspect to the ontological area of concepts. It means answering the following question: What are concepts based on in existence? .It is an assumption based on an important ontological dimension based on what the philosopher Heidegger advances. That the mark doesn’t replace thing by the sense it replaces but by the same thing. D r Amara has provided evidence that we use only part of the glossary, while the bulk remains absent .So, relating the pragmatic aspect to the ontological area of concepts is an urgent need for the lives of concepts; without this process the concept will become denotative depletion. He invited the philosopher Taha Abdurahman not to overlook a history that is reconstituted within concepts, and to take into account the image that any concept can form of what could be within discourse, because we are building a philosophical discourse that encompasses its history. If this history is not ontologically based on anything that can support it for reflection, we are creating ontologically decayed concepts. This leads to an inevitable consequence that no discipline to concept within the message without a discipline of history. This means that for any concept to have a life within the cultural system, it should have an ontological aspect within historical process; that is to be justified historically as well as linguistically and culturally. Every concept is a human experience; In the sense that it does not repeat itself and, as the philosopher Taha Abdurahman puts it every concept reproduces a human experience in specific historical conditions. When moving to the second axis of his intervention, Dr. Amara answers two central questions in Dr Taha’s project namely: Can a concept be rooted in the language, because if the concept is to stay alive it shouldn’t be liable to a denotative depletion?. According to the philosopher can we think without concepts? If we do not think, there is no need for concepts. The reverse also make us face a great paradox; that depends on the ability of language to build the structure of thinking for the concepts it produces, i.e., concepts which are not liable to denotative depletions. The solution according to the philosopher Taha Abdul Rahman is to pay attention to the spirit of concepts; that is to think without being subject to any form that can be produced by the philosophical discourse. Due to time constraints, the professor finished his important intervention without dealing with the remaining two axes. Dr. Abdul Jalil Hnoush (of Cadi ayyad University- Marrakech) presided over the third session which was inaugurated by Dr. Zakaria Serty (Moulay Suleiman University – Beni Mellal). He dealt with the main concepts of his research, and discussed the attempts in contemporary Western thought that favor universal values (Ethics), but they remain pregnant with universal terminology in a secular liberal and new pragmatism. The researcher believes that in the Arab world there might be a deportion by those who tried to transfer the term to the contemporary western thought, this is observed in all linguistic discourses. You would hardly find a philosopher or thinker who has not adopted a Western agenda. It was assumed that the deportation of terms is an effort to forge the identity and specifically religious identity to undermine Islamic values. The researcher then talked about the models adopted by Taha Abdul Rahman in dispelling the rationality that is based on dualism of mind, politics and culture, because we cannot think without terms or concepts. Taha has presented new concepts in the lesson of philosophy from self diagnosis to philosophical innovation and bringing it into existence in Arabic usage. The researcher, Dr. Taha Abdel Rahman, considers term originating as an internalization of morality as there can be no creativity with imitation and no modernity without progress. He doesn’t consider terminology foundation merely as a scientific movement required by the exigencies of linguistics but it goes beyond this to the spiritual demands .This is a fact that urged Dr Taha to seek terminology establishment. After spontaneously duplicating Greek philosophy , the Arabs did not distinguish between what is linguistic and what is terminological , as a result terminological chaos spread in the Arab language .It is worth raising the issue of the limitations on Arab thought that can’t move beyond Greek boundaries, which made the Arab tongue unable to create an alternative term. The mechanisms of bound mind cannot operate within an authentic term. For this reason producing simulation has enriched the Arab mind. As a conclusion, Dr Serti pointed out: 1 – Dr. Taha Abdul Rahman coined new terms (as the term of movement and faith through the mind.) opening thus new reasoning paths: and representations which dispel allegations of the impossibility of an original thought. 2. The conviction that reveals a hidden language of discourse. And this applies to language as carrying an Islamic value of discourse. 3. The uniqueness of Dr. Taha’s project in building the system of the terminology , his attempt to destroy the reality of contemporary Western modernity and his attempt to establish an Islamic philosophy that equals Western philosophy drawing upon its principles and methodologies. 4. Establishing terms that can be concepts for new creative readings of texts as well as adjusting the heritage, through which he lay the foundations for great system of values that refuse the rule of imitation. 5 – Tasha’s remapping of the Arab Muslim thinking through a project of authenticity and renewal of concepts proposition and creativity. Dr. Fouad Belmoudden’s intervention(University of Moulay suleymane – beni-mellal), was entitled “employment of terms and legal concepts and its impact on the philosophical project of Dr Taha Abdurahman” The researcher talked about the problematic discussed by Dr. Taha Abdurahman which is the question of the relationship of impact between philosophy and jurisprudence in Ibn Rushd’s philosophical project . In other words, did jurisprudence have an effect on his philosophy? Or whether his philosophy had an effect on jurisprudence? This intervention was twofold: the first research studied the intellectual mechanisms of Taha Abdurrahman’s project and stopped at the characteristics of philosophical thought and its originating, creative and methodological features .In the second research he talked about employing legal concepts and terms, and their impact on Taha’s philosophy selecting some of the most outstanding concepts in his thought such as trust, measurement, testimony and accreditation. In his contribution “concepts and thoughts of Taha Abdurahman,” Dr. Abdullah Akhwad (University Moulay Suleiman – Ben iMellal) considered the conference as an annual tradition for the revival of Islamic values and a recognition of people’s efforts. Thanks should go to those who worked for the liberation of the nation and freed her mind. Today, Taha Abdurahman works on this central concept of freedom as a prerequisite for creativity. We generally often care about the concept but not about the functions of the concept as they are what hold the Arab mind. The researcher chose to address the concepts and terms through these functions: Methodological Function Cognitive Function Creative Function Communicative Function Taha Abdurahman’s project teaches us: Positive rebellion: The Arab mind’s rebellion on traditions from which we inherited permanent handicap at the level of activating our symbolic material and cultural resources. How to instill these values in the contemporary Arab thought and shift from celebrating Taha Abd-urahman’s thinking to embrace it on the institutional level. Taha Abdurahman’s thought is unique in method, context and constructive knowledge. It has grasped the constants and the variables of Arab thought .It is inclusive of all disciplines. It is also an argumentative thought to be accommodated in its mechanisms and its evidentiary methods. The march of cognitive and civilized creativity is weak in the nation unless more attention is given to the heart of the crisis in the nation; that is the concepts and terms .Whomever extrapolates the future will take the cognitive and methodological resolutions and start from the accumulation to reach construction. And only those who own cognitive and methodological resolutions can makes future in terms of concepts that can surpass their imported counterpart in inspiring the Arab mind . The conceptual and terminological project is of primary contemporary concerns. It is at the center of either human reform or corruption. The last intervention on the first day was by Dr Ahmed Alfarrak (Mohammed fifth University of Rabat), entitled “Renewing the concept of reason with the philosopher Taha Abdurahman ‘s philosophical conceptions of rationality” . He began by praising the celebrated Dr. Taha Abdur -rahman then presented the main points to be discussed in his intervention. Then went on talking about reason and its impact on addressing the rational and philosophical views. Undoubtedly, the scope of creativity, renovation and criticism in Dr Taha Abdurahman ‘s philosophical model encompasses concepts, methods and mechanisms before knowledge and content be it original or copied. Because the core of philosophical transition is rational thinking, the philosophy of innovation treats the sum of cognitive and methodological calamities of different philosophies of both the advocates of authenticity and advocates of modernism. One such calamity is that of listening; it is a flaw that was committed by many early thinkers and which many recent thinkers are still committing, which has obliterated philosophical creativity .Among the intellectual spaces related to Taha Abdurahman is the presence of thought in his discourse, and this is confirmed by all his writings, speeches and critical works from beginning to end. Through his scientific contribution the author has demonstrated the meanings of innovation in the term of reason in Taha’s project of philosophical,logical and ethical criticism through which he treated the conventional definitions in the past as well as in the present. He has set a complete philosophical theory based on a combination of originating the prevalent concepts, a creation of new concepts and upgrading both natural and man-made concepts .All that on the light of a reading that aims at establishing a conceptual and terminological mechanism able to produce an independent discourse in a battle that Taha has called the battle of philosophical terminology. In this intervention the researcher defined the contents of his contribution which addresses Taha Abdurahman ‘s criticism especially of Aristotle’s philosophy and the shortcomings of Western philosophy. Both of these philosophies are linked to the guidance and fragmentation of reason and their claim of the sanctity of reason and the transfer of modern philosophy and what it has created all over the Arab world. As a conclusion Dr. Ahmed Alfarrak explained the abstraction of concepts and issues setting it apart from the rest of human acts of rhetoric; and here he has canceled the argument of pure reason. This philosophy that goes beyond rationality was criticized by Taha Abdurahman ‘s demonstrating that the Arab Muslim reason must have qualities and characteristics that distinguish it from other forms of thinking , and make it superior to Western thought . The Arab thought has features that the Western thought lacks; it is a call for contacting the Western thought without bringing prejudice to the Arab Muslim thought. The second day of the conference: On the morning of the second day in the faculty of the Arabic Language in Marrakech, another scientific meeting took place; it was chaired by Dr. al muttaqi (Faculty of the Arabic language-Marrakech). Dr. Abdul Rahman Sulaiman (University of Leuven, Belgium) presented a paper on the theme: “the importance of etymologization and comparative language expression and their roles in controlling the terminological :Taha Abdurahman ‘s concept of secularism in as a model.” The doctor examined six issues: the first is the science of etymologization and comparative linguistics; secondly the term “secularism” according to Taha, Abdurahman through his two books: The Spirit of Religion and The Poverty of secularism .The third issue was the old original concepts of the term“ Laicism”. The fourth issue deals with the modern original concepts of the term “ Secularism“ and the term “laicité”. The fifth point: the etymologization of the term” secularism “in Arabic. The sixth and last issue deals with “Secularism”: Terminology and concepts, ending his research with synopses showing how the scholar Taha Abdurahman has used the term “secular” in his books .Dr Abdul Rahman al Sulaiman then concluded his presentation with very important suggestions to separate the terms generated by the secular thought and to create specific terms as did Dr. Taha Abdurahman in the book The Poverty of secularism ,without any foreign term simulation. Congress’s second-day activities: The sessions were resumed on the second day at the faculty of Arabic language with a fourth scientific session that was chaired by Dr. Ali Elmottaki (faculty of Arabic language – Marrakech). Dr. Abderrahmane Alsoleiman (Lovan University- Belgium) presented a research entitled: «أهمية التأثيل وعلم اللغة المقارن ودورهما في ضبط المفاهيم الاصطلاحية: مصطلح العلمانية عند طه عبد الرحمن أنموذجا» That is “The importance of etymology and comparative science of language and their role in establishing the denotative notions: the notion of secularism in/for Taha Abdurahman ‘s as a case study/ sample”. In his research, Dr. Abderrahmane Alsoleiman tackled six issues. First, the science of etymology and the comparative science of language. Second, the notion of ‘secularism’ in Taha’s thought relying on Taha’s two books (روح الدين ) That is; ‘the spirit of the religion soul of the religion’ and (بؤس الدهرانية ) that is; ‘The Poverty of secularism the misery of Addahrannia’. Third; the original notion of secularism: ‘Laicism’ and ‘secularism’. Fourth; the original and modern notions of ‘secularism’ among which we find ‘secularism’ or (الدنيوية ) and ‘laicité’ or (اللائيكية). Fifth, the notion of secularism in Arabic. Sixth and last; “secularism”: the notion and the terms. He then; gave a summary on how Dr. Taha Abderrahmane utilized the notion of secularism in his two books. Dr. Abderrahmane Alsoleiman ended the presentation by giving some important recommendations on the necessity of separating between the notions that were generated from the secular thought and establishing special notions to refer to them, just the way professor Taha did in his book entitled (بؤس الدهرانية “the misery of Addahrannia’) in order to avoid the simulation of any of the foreign notions. In the following intervention; Dr. Amal Mawhoub (university of Algiers 2 – Algeria) has expressed her happiness and gratitude for standing in front of the doctor and the thinker Tah aAbderrahmane. Dr. Amal’s participation was entitled “من الترجمة الاتباعية إلى الترجمة الإبداعية” or “from following to innovative translation”. She considers translation to be not only the transfer of a language thought to another but a means to rattle the receptive culture and raise new questions as well. The margin on which the translator moves is bit tighter than the author’s for, the translator deals with an already established text that he has to transfer. Thus, translation is a dialogue, a discussion and an interaction between people of various thoughts, visions, and judgments. Dr. Amal insisted that there is a bound between philosophy and translation and that this can be noticed by a simple look at the history of philosophy which has adopted two methods to translate the Grecian philosophical legacy i.e., the verbal and the non-verbal methods. Dr. Amal carried on her intervention using an inductive approach that goes from introduction to results. This introduction proves that Taha Abdurahman ‘s project is trying to get the Arabic philosophy out of its isolation and dependency on other philosophical projects. Taha’s project also aims at reconsidering the rendered (المنقول) philosophical text for; it is only a production of a human brain that may be potentially right or wrong, and thus establishing a deliberative relationship between the philosophical text and the Arabic audience in order to generate philosophizing, dialogue and difference. The translation of philosophy in the Arab world has been trapped in the original western text. It was considered to be a following in (الاتباعية) translation. It is time to set the pillars for another type of translation, a translation that professor Taha calls a ‘creative’ (الإبداعية) translation. Professor Taha states the reason that helped the following in (الاتباعية) translation to prevail as follows: • The tendency towards the new and reluctance to the old. • The authoritarianism of the western culture and the oppression of the native culture. • Diminution of the self and the glorifying the other. Dr. Taha; according to Dr. Amal; suggests an alternative for this translation, that is; an effective translation not an affective one which requires: • The liberation of the philosophical thinking in order to achieve creativity. • The intellectual independence and the liberation from dependency in order to preserve the Arabic privacy. • Adopting the principle of limited relativity of philosophical origins as an alternative to the principle of (الإطلاقية). • The adoption of the limited involvement of the philosophical branches. How can a translator perform this creative (الإبداعية) translation? The answer is that the translator should have the ability to assume and to suggest and also to deprive the philosophical text of its sanctity and to get over the idea of being the others’ disciple. Dr. Mustapha Toubi (Ibnzohr university Agadir) presented an exposé entitled: “the notion of “permission” in Taha Abdurahman ‘s works in the light of sacred text translation and history”. In his intervention; Dr. Toubi tackled many points. Here are the most important ones: The incentives that pushed for suggesting the notion of permission are: – First: the limitation of treating translation from a historical perspective both rhetorically or linguistically. – Second: The inability of the notion of rooting to treat the translation of the meanings of the Holy Koran. – Third: the supremacy of rooting which is a selective translation that caters for the Koranic text’s common aspects. This rooting technique has led to the problems we are facing now in this respect or what came to be known as a ‘personal view’ translation and thus to the dead end. Eventually; Dr. Toubi talked about the validity of the notion of permission in the linguistic and religious heritage. The interventions were brought to an end by the 4th scientific interventions that was presented by Dr. Abdelhamid Zahid and Dr. Hassan darir (Cadi Ayyad university- Marrakech) and that was entitled “the notion of translation in between the philosophical and religious discourses in Taha Abderrahman’s works: from rendering to borrowing”. The Doctors pointed out that the western theory of translation follows two trends: the first trend’s main figures are Heidegger, Gadamer, Derrida and Benjamin who worked on translational philosophy. The second trend’s main figures are Mishonique and Berman who advocated the literal translation or what Taha refers to as the philosophical translation. The Doctors posited that the religious discourse is universal, infinite and supreme. Taha followed the root translation in order to overcome the notion of loss in translating religious texts. The root translation of the religious text made Taha reconsider this notion and thus he introduced many changes: He altered the old perception of the root and the transference النقل) ). The philosophical discourse is human while the religious discourse is Devine. Moreover; the philosophical discourse represents the other and the translator represents the subject/self (الذات) while the religious discourse represents the subject and his translator represents the other. The Doctors then, summed up that only a reporting (التبليغية) translation can render a religious text for its main aim is to report the Devine discourse to the other. This translation relies on what the Doctors referred to as the translational inimitability (الإعجاز) of the Holy Koran i.e. the inability of the normal being to produce something like it. This inimitability is related to the rendering discourse and is not binding in the rendered discourse for it is related to challenge. Thus, taking it into consideration in the conveying translation is not compulsory because the inimitability in translation is related only to the Arabic common discourse. Accordingly; we can say that the conveying translation aims at dismantling the Koranic style that is responsible for the inimitability of the bearing tongue, and stripping these styles from its verbal shapes and grammatical constructions. The two Doctors pointed out that the conveying translation relies on borrowing as it is impossible to talk about rendering for rendering shall lead to distortion because the Devine (Divine) meaning is infinite. The reporting translation also relies on communicating the meaning and not on describing it. It also seeks to meet the requirements of the deliberative Koranic text such as faith, articles of worship and behavior. The reporting translation derives its procedures and methodology from a new science that the Doctors call ‘the jurisprudence’ of the Koranic translation (فقه الترجمة القرآنية). This scientific branch can be added to the other seventeen explanatory sciences. While the seventeen explanatory sciences seek to understand the Holy Koran in the light of its natural language, the former seeks to uncover the mechanics used in conveying the religious discourse via the reporting translation. The fifth session was chaired by Dr. Ali Almuttaqi (vice dean of the faculty of Arabic language, Alquarwiyin university). The session commenced by an intervention by Dr. Nadir Habel (Telmsan University, Algeria), the intervention was entitled “ the making of the notion and the problematic system of values: towards a practical Islamic philosophy”. The intervention focused on Taha’s efforts to evaluate Averos’s (ابن رشد) notational and philosophical heritage. Dr. Habel focused on the following topics: 1. Reminding the audience of Taha’s empirical approaches. 2. Pointing out to the innovative features in philosophy and logic and other fields. 3. Taha’s quest to venture into the alternative heritage applications. 4. The study of the alternative and dialectical applications The intervener also mentioned some of Taha’s abilities to evaluate the notion pointing out to some of the resources Taha has relied upon to do so: 1. The source of linguistic knowledge. 2. The source of modern psychological knowledge. 3. The source of the dialectical and argumentative knowledge. The researcher also pointed out to the knowledge that Taha has relied upon in his works and how it benefited the researchers pointing out to the latter’s notion of dialectic inference and exposing a classification of the self and heritage evaluation i.e. the self that helps describe the heritage and the self that acts in heritage. He then moved on to talk about the role this classification plays in linguistics, philosophical and logical applications. He also exposed this classification and how it was used in studying and evaluating heritage. The researcher also pointed out to two facts: 1. The creative philosopher abides by the limitations of the self-read heritage which bypasses the actual proposal for the sake of conveying meaning. 2. The philosopher abides by the interaction between the classes of the acting-self to challenge the class of the ethical self. Accordingly; the researcher realized Taha’s points in raising the concern and ambiguity of the term (قلق العبارة) مصطلح استعمله ابن رشد in the source texts. He then concluded that Taha questioned the meanings of the Averos’s works and exposed the failure in explaining the notions and the terms. Dr. Zakaria Essarti tackled the different types of evidence in relation to the philosophical language. He also wondered about the possibilities of investing these types of evidence and speech since truth necessitates a language of evidence as a requirement for a dialectic speech. He eventually insisted that his research paper has opened the door for all the works of Taha, be it his direct classifications or the theoretical applications he has established using original dialectic evidence. Dr. Sasdia Ben Denia (university of Mostghanem, Algeria) that was entitled “the philosophical and values roots in establishing the notions in Taha Abdurahman ‘s thought”. The researcher started her intervention by (asking god to send his blessings upon ) the Prophet and then moved on to thank the organizers of this event that aims to honor the researchers and scientific research. She considered honoring Dr. Taha to be a great event and that she was honored to take part in it. Dr. Saadia went straight to present the methodological steps she adopted. She started by presenting the following problematic: what are the innovative dimensions used in the process of monitoring concepts and establishing them within Taha’s philosophical project? How to produce these concepts and qualify them to be considered as deep philosophical notions and typical speeches? To answer these two questions, Dr. Saadia divided her intervention to three parts: 1. The living philosophy 2. The etymological horizons 3. The basis of concepts. Dr. Saadia said that the question that haunts the philosopher is how to get out of the trap of dependency and imitation, and how to regain the consideration of the Islamic system and thus to found the pillars for cultural variety. Dr. Saadia claimed that Dr. Taha tried to find the reasons behind this dependency. According to her; Dr. Taha sees that the only way to establish an independent Islamic philosophy is to build intellectual, cognitive and philosophical approaches that copulate both innovation and authenticity. This according to Taha was not available to the Arabic mentality that went on imitating the product of the western philosophy. Dr. Taha refused the Arabic philosophy’s stance that relies on the western philosophical stereotypes. He suggests instead the liberation of the Muslim mentality and the definition of the starting points that shall constitute its reference. To meet this goal, Taha focused in his scientific project on how to escape the grips of imitation to freedom and innovation. Dr. Saadia; in her study of Taha’s project; has come to get his strategy of work which she summarized in the following points: 1. Innovating the brain and the curriculum by adopting clear approaches. 2. Producing special and subjective curricula 3. Adjusting and checking the notions. Dr. Saadia points out in this regard that the westerners were aware of the importance of the notions in building the philosophical patterns and they made it their point of concern, a thing that is not Islamic philosophical practices. Dr. Saadia raised a fundamental question: Are building and innovating terms enough to resurrect the philosophical thought? The answer according to her understanding of Taha’s philosophical project is NO. she sees that the terms should be filled by values because these values are what makes the essence of the terms. The spice of these values is the set of values that supplies the Arab philosopher with Ideas and tools to confront the western thought. Dr. Saadia sums her intervention by pointing out to a plan to mend the wrap in the Islamic thought. But what are those values that are to mend this wrap? According to Dr. saadia; Dr. Taha posits that creed and ethics should be on top of the list. Thus, in order for the Arabic philosophy to be efficient it should rely on the roots of the Islamic religion, this way it shall create its own Islamic notions. Then, he adds the historical values, which is relating and filling the notions with the historical values that have produced them because the Islamic heritage is a fact that cannot be ignored. She ended her intervention by pointing out to the necessity of relating the notions to the logical thinking because Taha did not only the notions for granted, but he utilized them to understand and etymologize the Islamic heritage. The sixth session was chaired by Dr. Hassan Taleb (university Ibn Zohr, Agadir). It commenced by an intervention of Dr. Dhahbia Hammou Elhaj (university of TizziWazzou, Algeria), that was entitled “The oratorical and deliberative rhetorical aspects of Taha Abdurahman ‘s thought”. Dr. Dahbia started by thanking and praising Dr. Taha. Then she moved on in exposing the elements of her intervention which she has focused on distinguishing between all the notions that were established by Taha’s latest works and the new notions that have regenerated from it. She then moved on to list some of the notions and terms that Taha has established in his works, such as: • The nature and function of language bypass the role of communication and delivery to become part of the human thought and a means to understand the self. • There is no rhetoric that stems on void for everything that is going on in the mind is the result of hypothesis and postulation. • The hypothesis is built upon the duality of addresser and the addressee where both try to convince the other in a dialectic way. • The notion of rhetoric relates directly to the representation of lexis and images and all the other elements that make the harmony, the coherence and the aesthetic dimension of the text and thus qualify it to be an art of speech. • Deliberatively is the science of utilizing language that forces the explanation of the text. Taha insisted since the seventies that delebrativity is both practice and interaction. • The obligation of précising the roots of speech. • The focus on the notion of the meaningful speech rather on the notion of speech. • Taha raised the notion of the Arabic theory under which he coined the concepts of interception and contradiction. • Both the addresser and the addressee take part in the process of reporting in order to direct the establishment of speech. • The successful efficiency for speech must be a deliberative, dialectic, and persuasive aspect. • Taha has adopted the verbal speech instead of the speech approach, for this he has defined 3 elements which are: presenting the stance, presenting the proof of the stance and the objection to the stance. To achieve the advocacy, it is compulsory to have honesty which is disputed by both the addresser and the addressee. Dr. Dhahbia has focused on three axes which she has quoted from Dr. Taha’s work. • Reporting which has linked to everything that is going on between the addresser and the addressee. • Evidencing which she has linked to proofs. • Directing which she has linked to the verbal talking. Dr. Kacem Quada ben Tayeb (Tismsilt university center, Algeria) took the next intervention which was entitled “The concept of linguistic deliberativity in Taha Abdurahman ‘s book ‘innovating the approach of heritage evaluation’”. Dr. Kacem observed that the concept of deliberatively means that every science and every researcher has an approach and a collection of concepts by which he approaches his works and that is clear in Taha’s works. The concept of deliberatively is a subfield of linguistics which aims mainly at analyzing the process of speaking and the functions of language in the process of communication as a whole. Dr. Kacem tried to gather and react to these processes. Among these processes, we find the language that is used among addresser and the addressee. Dr. Taha asserted that Language is one of the most effective tools that are used to communicate messages and convince the addressee. But in case there is a gap between the addresser and the addressee it becomes impossible to reach an agreement. Some researchers believe that convincing is a condition to every deliberative speech and this is also the view adopted by Dr. Taha. Language usage gives language many facts some of which rely on the addresser while the others rely on the receiver. Dr. Kacem also talked about deliberative and communicative field. He pointed out that what Dr. Taha sees in this regard does not concern the communicative field though he might agree with him in some of the descriptions he provides. For, he believes that the deliberative field might concern some of the common sayings and beliefs but it deals with them as elements that are used in a total and an infinite way, while these elements are constructed simultaneously by both the addresser and the addressee in the communicative field. The communicative field is limited on both its sides, that is the side of the elements that are used and the time of this usage, this is not the case with the deliberative field. Dr. Kacem Ben Tayeb tackled some functions related to the deliberative field in Taha’s thought such as: the alteration and the unsteadiness of the deliberative field which is related to life that continuous and unstoppable. Dr. Ahmed Alaoui Amherzi (Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech) took the floor afterwards. His intervention was entitled “The concept of morals in Taha Abdulrahmane’s works” wherein he described Taha’s works as clear and clean comparing it to the faithful pioneers, adding that its content renewed in relation to time and place. Thus, whenever you read Taha, you find new things and new perspectives. Dr. Ahmed then moved to ask a question that has always intrigued him: Are Morals innate or acquired? Are they essential or unessential? He found the answer in Taha’s book “The question of morals”. He carried on talking about the aim of the Islamic jurisprudence which, according to him, aims to realize the different interests of the people. He divided it into three sections: the necessary which is vital to the benefits of both faith and life. The marginal which is the benefits that people lack and which is vital for guaranteeing the human dignity and avoiding hardship. The refinement which when lost does not affect neither the necessary nor the marginal for it is just a refinement. It was associated with many Imams (like Hwayni, Errazi, and Echatibi). Considering morals to be a refinement and not a necessity is still a matter of study according to Dr. Ahmed for this requires deep contemplation. This is just what Dr. Taha did explain. The Koran has insisted on self-purification in order for it to achieve the goal that it was created for which is submission to Allah. Allah has even given precedence to learning the Koran. Allah says in the Holy Koran: {It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom} {هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ} and the result is that purification is the point behind sending Prophets and religions in this life. Purification in itself is the adoption of the good morals and letting go of what contradicts it. Dr. Ahmed comes to the conclusion that the final point of every religious assignment is that it is a moral thing. Thus, if it is an order to take one has to abide by it and if it is an order to renounce one has to renounce it and if it was of both then it is the reality of the purification. Dr. Ahmed pointed out that the purification of the soul is due to be accomplished through religion as Taha advocates. Dr. Ahmed divided the scientists’ views of morals to three: The First view: It is believed that only Man and due to the mind that he is endowed with and which distinguishes him from animals, can monitor his moral life and that the mind is the source of the morals and that neither society nor religion has to do with it. The second view sees that morals impose a certain conduct that leads to a virtuous life and preserves from the inappropriate life. This is dictated either by the conventional law or by state’s law. The third view states that human beings are born with something innate that enables them to distinguish the good from the bad in a way that is uninfluenced by his personal desires and the influence of the society. Dr. Ahmed concluded that the works of Dr. Taha aim to build a human mind that can think in an accurate way. Dr. Taha says: “Our nation has for long been preoccupied by counting heads while other nations have been preoccupied by educating them. There is a huge difference between someone who counts the heads and someone who educates the heads”. This session went on by an intervention that was presented by Dr. Ibrahim Assikar (Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech). This intervention was entitled “The dialogic metaphor through the concept of conflict in Dr. Taha abdulrahmane’s works”. Dr. Assikar talked first about two fundamental concepts: dialogic and metaphorical conflict. In his approach to the concept of dialogic, Dr. Assikar tried to monitor the manifestations and extensions of the concept in Dr. Taha’s book “in the roots of dialogue and innovation of the philology”. While in his approach to the concept of the metaphorical conflict, Dr. Assikar tried to monitor its deliberative and communicative dimensions in the light of Taha’s book “Language and Balance, or Multiplicity of Reason” اللسان والميزان أو التكوثر العقلي”. After he compared the efforts invested by Taha in studying both concepts with the efforts invested by other scholars like Mikael bakhtin and Dikroo, Dr. Assikar came to the conclusion that the Taha’s dialogic metaphorical dimensions were more deeper from an intellectual, methodological and dialectic perspective. This, according to him creates an innovation in the role of metaphor in the rhetoric and deliberative and modern Arabic research. The Final Session: This final session was chaired by Doctor Ahmed Karoum and contained: The guests’ word was delivered by Dr. Abdelmalek Boumanjal who has praised the opening lecture that was presented by Dr. Taha and thanked the organizers and the media, especially Aljazeera live channel. He concluded his word with a poem. Dr. Bougadir Belaid (Vice president of Cadi Ayyad University) announced the end of the congress which according to him confirmed along the two previous days on the capacity of concepts’ innovation and the good establishment of these concepts in the scientific project of Dr. Taha abdulrahmane. He hoped for the congress to be held following year in Choaib Dokkali University, Aljadida. He concluded by praising Dr. Taha. The recommandations: • Continuing these congresses inside and outside of Morocco • Allotting a congress for comparative studies in Taha’s projects. • Printing the papers of congress 1 and 2. • Allotting a congress for Taha’s approach. • Writing a dictionary for Taha’s concepts • Establishing a magazine specialized in Taha’s thought. During the honor session, some poems were recited by: 1. Doctor Hadi Nahr from the university of Jordan 2. Student Mohamed Awiss, faculty of letters, Marrakech ( the poem was delivered in the Hassani dialect) The honoree’s word: Dr. Taha delivered a moving word. He spoke about the power of the word as the source of the soul and the life pointing out that killing it means killing the soul. These meetings according to him are a revival of the word that is as vast as the sea and as high as the tree. He thanked Allah for these words that mount up to the sky.

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