Report of the National Seminar “Efforts of Linguists and Reciters in the Service of the Quranic Text in honor of Dr Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi 2015

Report on the Work of the National Seminar “Efforts of Linguists and Reciters in the Service of the Quranic Text in honor of Dr Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi 2015

February 4. 5th. 2015  

The Knowledge Integration and Translation Laboratory and “Structure of Research in Arabic Language: Characteristics and Issues”  at  the faculty  of Arts and Humanities in  Marrakesh- Morocco- in coordination with the “Research Team in Education and Translation” in the faculty  of Arts and Humanities in Agadir –Morocco- and the Arabic Language College in Marrakech, organized the National Seminar on “The Efforts of Linguists and Reciters in Serving  the Qur’anic Text” in  the honor of Dr. Thami Al-Raji Alhashemi, on February 4.5th . 2015. The seminar took place in the conference room of the faculty of Arts and Humanities in Marrakech. The program of the national seminar reserved for honoring Dr Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi has contained scientific meetings and poetic participations. A great number of guests, specialists, interested people in the field of reciting, have attended the seminar. Thanks were attributed to all the contributors for the success of this event in the honor of Dr Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi.

The Opening Session

The seminar was chaired by the Dean of the Arabic Language faculty Dr. Mohammed Al Azhari.  Holy Quran verses were recited to launch the opening by both Professor Abu Radwan and Miloud Lahmer. • The speech of the Dean:      This speech was read by Mr. Said Bougruff on behalf of Her Excellency Mrs. Widad Tebaa, through which she referred to the great scientific value of such a meeting in terms of its content which combines two scientific fields: The field of linguistic studies and the Qur’anic reciting field. The seminar will unveil the cognitive backgrounds and the systematic and critic mechanisms among the two fields; a thing that can be of great help for students to enrich their knowledge and research. The value of this gathering gets its value from the fact that it is in the honor of a distinguished researcher and famous scholar in the field of Quranic studies, namely Dr. Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi. In conclusion, the Dean expressed her thanks and appreciation to everyone who contributed to the organization of this seminar.

Dr. Moulay Mustafa Abu Hazem spoke as a coordinator of the “Structure of Research in Arabic Language: Characteristics and Issues” at the faculty of arts and humanities and after his warm thanks to the attendees, professors and students, he shed light on the importance of such an event in recognition of one of the most prolific scholar of this country, the great Dr. Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi. The goal of this honor is to evoke the results of his knowledge and claiming of what we have in the depths of love and attachment to his merits. He concluded by thanking all those who contributed to the organization of the scientific seminar. • The speech of the “Team of Research in Education and Translation” of Arts and Humanities faculty in Agadir presented by Dr. Ahmed Karoum. He announced that all members of the research team are proud of this participation and assure that the objective of this scientific meeting is to prevail the culture of recognition to the efforts of scientists, and thus  benefit from their eternal works that they presented for the coming generations,. He concluded by wishing the best for Dr. Thami Al-Rajji Alhashemi. • The speech of the ” The Knowledge Integration and Translation Laboratory ” at the faculty of Arts and Humanities in Marrakesh, was presented  by Dr. Abdelhamid Zahid, who praised God for this blessed gathering in which he honored a distinguished Sheikh of excellence, a master of Arabic language sciences and a superior in foreign languages. He is the first linguist in our country, and a large number of graduates were his students. He concluded by thanking all those who participated in this meeting, especially students of the “The Knowledge Integration and Translation Laboratory”. Plenary session animated by Dr Abdelhadi Hamitou. Dr. Hamitou chose for his lecture the title of the seminar itself “The Efforts of Linguists and Reciters in serving the Qur’anic Text”. He began his speech by referring to the fact that the Qur’an is the central text on which the legitimate, linguistic and intellectual efforts in Arab culture revolve. He stated that Quranic recitations compose the framework of the Arabic languages which features the Quran miracle. In spite of the prominence of the seven, ten, and fourteen recitations, the Qur’anic recitations are in fact broader. For example, in the book “Souq Alaarouss (The Bride Market),” there are more than two thousands recitations, and in other references about seven thousands. But, they have all the same source and the same target. One of the manifestations of the interference of the linguists and reciters in serving the Quran, is that most of the linguists are famous reciters; the majority of them are more artistic, and it was said linguistic or a reciter, one of whom are Sibayweh and Abu Amr Ibnu Al- Ala’.  The Quran urged people to memorize think upon and preach its verses, and there is no way to memorize it except by understanding it and there is no way to understand it except by mastering its language. Imam Malik (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “Do not follow an ignorant man in language, who explains the Quran, the reciters were the first to call for the need to write and protect the language. It was attributed to Abdul Rahman Ibnu Hormuz, who was the first grammarian, and he was one of the greatest reciters, and it is not strange to appear before the book of Sibawayh, Issa Ibnu Omar al-Thaqafi who is one of the greatest reciters and Sibawayeh’s teacher, Nafiaa and Al-Khalil and he has two books in grammar: ‘ Aljamiaa’ and “Alkamil” ; reciters were charged of the language and to the meanings of the Qur’an as it was said before, because the Arabic language was one of the  pillars of recitation since the beginning, in addition to the correctness of the narration and the compatibility of the writing. Dr. Hamitou considered that the ancient realized that the need of the reciter to master the language has led to the emergence of guidance books to guide the recitations, mainly the first book entitled “Alhujja” by Alfarissi, as Arabic is a criterion of recitation and reciting is an Arabic language framework, there is much interference between them. Abu Hayyan was right in saying: “Whoever wants a knowledge of the book, has to read Al- Kitab.” That is to say, the one who wants to be knowledgeable in Quranic studies must check Al- Kitab (The Book) of Sibawayh. That was how the Sheikh concluded his lecture which is full of valuable news. The First Scientific Session The first session was chaired by Dr Khalid Essaqi, Director of Muhammad sixth Institute of the Holy Quran. There were three interventions: the first intervention was entitled: “Scientific and Methodological Rules for the Imam Ibnu al-Jazari” by Dr. Ahmed Bazoui from the faculty of Arts and Humanities in El-Jadida- Morocco. At the beginning of his intervention, Professor Ahmed Bazoui considered that the studies related to the Quran are systematically repetitive.  From this, the professor concluded that this problem is a systematic one, pointing out, at the same time, to multilingualism. The professor said also that in the methods of scientific research, studies are conducted in a theoretical way as if separate from life, on the opposite; the ancients study the process in its link to life. Then the professor moved on talking about a set of scientific rules that he derived from Ibnu al-Jazari’s book, he pointed out that it is six hundred scientific rules, and thus difficult to be fully briefed. For this reason, the lecturer focused on the basis of extrapolation of information of Ibnu al-Jazari. The second intervention: “Abnormal Recitations between Violating and Agreeing with the Writing” presented by Dr. Abdul Hadi Dahani from El jadida faculty of Arts and Humanities.

The professor began by announcing the methodology he adopted in his study, which is the introduction of the drawing that is most compatible with the rules of the Arabic language, based on Makki Ibnu Abi Talib, who divided the recitations into three sections:

  1. A section used to read; It has three specifications: It has a strong belief in the prophet of Allah Peace Be Upon Him. It should be recognized in the global Arabic language; the language of the Holy Quran. It aligns with the calligraphy of the Holy book.2. A section used to read, but it is not accepted: This is what is transmitted correctly but different from the Quran Calligraphy.3. A section neither used to read nor accepted; it is left or rejected. The professor added that it is Othman IBnu  Affan  who collected the Quran and rewrote them, they were possessed by Hafsa bent Omar Ibnu  al-Khattab, which was unanimously agreed upon by Muslims, and dropped every recitation different from the Holy book.   The professor talked about other approaches that are not valid in recitation, he cited the saying of Al-Tabari: “The reciters are extremely different when they differ in words” meaning that the difference lies in no more than one letter.  Such as in the last verse of Surah Al-Fatihah (the opening): (Those who have evoked your anger and those who have not gone astray), it is a valid reading, but left spontaneous and gradual. The third intervention: “Linguistic and Rhetoric guidelines of the Quranic recitations” by Professor Abdelouahed Samadi from Muhammad sixth Institute for Quranic recitations and studies in Rabat-Morocco. The professor began his intervention by identifying the linguistic and the lexical meanings of the “linguistic guidance”, determining its position among the scholars of rhetoric, the scholars of recitations and prosody. And it was mentioned in ways of teaching, research and opposition in all contexts. Hence, it is a science that looks for the meanings of recitations and finds out its presence in the Arabic language. In the same context, the researcher pointed the importance of “linguistic guidance” in the Arabic- Islamic library. Al- Sayuti, Ibnu Akil, Imam al-Zarkashi and others call this science “guidance of recitations”. While the new scholars call it ” The parsing of recitations” but only the term “guidance” was accepted. For this reason, the researcher concluded that this concept was defined in terms of specificity between the scholars of recitations and others.The linguistic guidance in the researcher’s assessment is subject to phonological, structural and semantic rules, and has been limited to three types:1-Routing tools2-Semantic guidance3-Quranic guidance     This model was exemplified by the great examples of this art and its rules were tackled by the scholars, in the following points: 1 -Listening and transferring: They argue about cases where there was no debate. 2 -Quranic recitations: by directing the reading of the Quranic verses according to the readings known in this context. 3 -The Hadith is an argument in the section of recitation, and what the researcher observed in this officer is the lack of references, which according to him is a matter of difference of grammarians in reciting by the Hadith. 4 -Arabic poetry was a reference in directing the recitation issues in the section of multiple recitations. 5 -The proverbs of the Arabs and their sayings: were quoted by the guiding scientists in the reciting of the Quranic verses. 6 -Taking into account the context. 7 – Analogy. 8 -Taking into account the origin. The researcher concluded with the fact that the linguists relied on several disciplines represented in the various mechanisms of reference, which they used to control the recitation to serve the Quranic text.

The Second Scientific Session

This session took place in the evening of the first day and was chaired by Dr. Jamil Mobarak from Achariaa faculty of Ait Melloul in Agadir, it included three scientific interventions: The first intervention: “The Knowledge of the Meanings of the Quran and its System” by Professor Dr. Moulay Mustapha Abou Hazem from the faculty of Arts and Humanities in Marrakesh. The speaker started his intervention by mentioning that what has been written about the knowledge of the meanings of the Quran is much in the last three decades, whereas before the modern era, little has been written about it. Nevertheless, it still needs more enrichment. Therefore, he raised questions and formulated problems about the nature of knowledge of the meanings of the Quran, and wondered to the extent of knowledge of the meanings of the Quran and its subject …, pointing out that the establishment of this science dates back to the first Hijri centuries.   The researcher insisted that his starting point in the research is a central question: “What is the knowledge field of the science of the meanings of the Quran?”  He tried to achieve a final, decisive answer, but things still remained unanswered. Hence, science in his opinion is not the science of interpreting the Qur’an, neither looking at each vocabulary separately, and it only intervenes when the linguistic researcher faces questions related to the language of the Quran text in terms of the ambiguity resulted from the semantic components and out of the normal use of the words of the Quran. The lecturer does not consider every reader of the Quran a linguist, explaining that the ambiguity mentioned is not related to the language of the Quran, but to the reader. The conclusion should be that the knowledge of the meanings of the Quran differs from the science of the Quran issues, and its miracle, parsing, and its recitation guidance. Though, they are all embedded in the knowledge of the meanings of the Quran. The field of the meanings of the Quran remains exploited on both, the applied and the cognitive levels. Therefore, these linguistic branches of the Quran do not follow the analytical knowledge horizons where grammar is crucial in dealing with the science of the meanings of the Qur’an.

The professor identifies in his intervention the answers of the researchers to the questions of the field of knowledge to which the science of the meanings of the Qur’an belongs, and defining it as an answer to the questions that were raised about the Quranic text on a word level and compound words level, especially the ambiguous. Then, the knowledge of the meanings of the Quran means what is formed in the Quran and what needs efforts to be understood. This definition according to the speaker is a concept that accumulates both sides of correctness and rightness, but it is vague and incomprehensible, because it does not clearly define the scientific practice which categorized the science of the meanings of the Quran and distinguished it from other sciences overlapping with it and supporting it in its field, and because theoretical and applied practices are not limited to what has been mentioned. The intervening professor sees that the limitation of the field of knowledge of the science of the meanings of the Quran is not a question of wording or a phrase that may be right or wrong, It is essentially a matter of perceptions, representations and assimilation of objective and cognitive data whose cognitive context and elements should be stated before the words of its phrases before looking to its structure. He chose a component which enabled to frame the science of the meanings of the Quran within a special context to form the science of language in the history of Islam. The most prominent of these determinants and contexts are the context of the general knowledge environment where this science originated, to serve the language of the Holy Quran, and there is a special context of the science of language which has a relationship with the first context, and the strongest manifestations during the second Hijri Century is the innovative vitality, which resulted in a number of language sciences in service of the language of the Quran. He mentioned that he came up with a list of these sciences (about twenty), all of which appeared in second Hijri Century. For him, the science of the meanings of the Quran is considered to be the cognitive field that has been adapted to the theoretical and applied efforts of the Muslim linguists in the study of the Quran. The Arabs and Muslims did not know about that before the discovery of the patterns of Arabic language and structure and provide equivalent descriptions to them, because the science of the meanings of the Quran has emerged from the core of the discovered patterns and procedures to identify their structures and linguistic descriptions. The professor concluded his intervention by mentioning those sciences which were previously mentioned and explained their relation to the Holy Quran in terms of characteristics and specifications.

The second intervention: “The morphological formulas in the Quranic recitations – Linguistic approaches” by Professor Khadija Iker from the faculty of Arts and Humanities in Eljadida –Morocco. Professor Khadija Iker first emphasized on the importance of this seminar, which focused on serving the Quranic text, by highlighting the strong relationship between the Arabic language and the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran represents a miraculous language system, it must be approached in a linguistic way to achieve communication between Muslims and God Almighty. However, this communication will succeed only by commitment to his words and orders in his book, so that; this exercise and understanding are to be a legitimate duty. The presenter pointed out the fact that the Arabic linguistic course drew its value from the holy Quran. The first interpretation of the Holy Quran was of a pure linguistic nature. The first investigators focused on the linguistic aspect of the sounds, conjugation, and grammar. Thus, the Arabic language was raised and its mechanisms were developed to understand the Quran in its various levels. Through the pillars of the Arabic language: sound, conjugation, syntax and semantics. Dr. Khadija Iker’s intervention focuses on the morphological structure of the Holy Quran, as it is concerned with the formation and construction of the word. The professor focused on the differences that are produced in terms of morphology in the Quranic recitations. These differences are either at the level of derivation or at the level of abstraction and addition of the noun, or at the level of singular forms, gemination and plural.

The professor mentioned at the level of derivation a number of examples, including: recitation of the fourth verse of the Quran (the owner of the day of doomsday), the word “owner” in this recitation came in the form of a deverbative which is a variable form, while Aubay Ibnu Kaab read the same verse, “Fmalek”, differently and some other reciters did the same, the word ” Malek” is an adjective. After presenting an important number of examples, Professor Khadija Iker confirmed that the recitations differ in the conjugation and syntax to achieve an agreement in the meaning. In conclusion, the interventionist stressed that scholars should focus more on the linguistic part in the Holy Quran because it is a key to the book of God, without the linguistic communication based on the four components of the Arabic language, there will be no permanent relationship between us and the Holy Quran. The third intervention: “The Quranic and Linguistic Lesson: The Cognitive Text as a Model” by Professor Ibrahim Aqili from the faculty of Arts and Humanities in El-Jadida. After thanking all the organizers of this seminar, Dr. Ibrahim Aqili explained what he meant by the cognitive lesson, which is related to the functions of the text. Understanding the Quranic text in general and language in particular requires acquaintance with all aspects of Arabic and its characteristics that is exegesis and semantics. Understanding of what is in the holy book. Dr. Ibrahim Aqili acknowledged that understanding the secrets of the Quran depends on knowing a number of sciences that contribute to the deduction of clauses of the book, and guarantees that religious texts are meaningful and have aspects for reflection. Dr. Ibrahim Aqili has studied the book of Ibnu Jenni “Al-Muhtasib, in the definition of the faces of references and clarifications about them”, which dealt with the recitation of Quranic texts based on both, the linguistic and semantic interpretations, Dr. Ibrahim Aqili has commented on a number of texts that appear on the book, most notably the reading of the verse (God taught Adam all the names) in  different ways from other reciters in different ways between the group that  read  it by Adam was taught all the names and  Al-Barbari added who recites it by (Adam’s knowledge of all names) . Ibnu Jenni in the interpretation of this recitation stated that the purpose that is God is the doer of everything; this knowledge which concerns only Adam, the father of all human beings, adding to this that this knowledge differs from others due to its origin; therefore the recitation of the word teach figures out that Adam would not have known language nor the names easily but with the help of God which is confirmed also by Zohari.   If we consider the principle of linguistic synonymy, the word “knows” means “aware of”, meaning that God is knowledgeable. So it is GOD who taught Adam names; and knowledge is specific for Adam. This is what was missing in Ibnu Jenni who related knowing to previous knowledge. Ending this analysis, Dr. Ibrahim Aqili began to read the following verse (“they listened to the words of God”) which was recited differently by both, the group and Aalaamach. It is known that the word indicates individual meanings which are easy to distort. And when the context in the verse means distortion according to God’s saying “then they distorted it after they knew its meaning”. It is then permissible to recite the verse by saying “the word of God” and not as it was recited by Ibnu Jenni. The Third example, which was discussed by Dr. Ibrahim Aqili dealt with the analysis and interpretation of the recitation of  the verse (and Moussa’s mother heart became empty); which was recited by the following, The group, ALhassane and Abouhadil, Ibn Abbas differently, and ” Qotrob told, based on the recitation of some of the companions of the Prophet peace be upon him as “Ferga”, and Abu Al-Fath Ibnu Jenni approved that the meaning of each of the words is different, because the word “panic” means concern, and “ding” indicates something empty or revealed, “empty” means wasted and void, while the meaning of “empty” free of sadness, In his intervention, Dr. Ibrahim Aqili mentioned the point of view of Ibn Abbas, who said that “empty” is empty of everything except who mentioned Moses, to acknowledge that this interpretation is correct compared to the interpretation of Ibnu Jenni, which is not compatible with the narration or context. There was a clear indication that the heart of Moses mother had suffered from great fear and panic, which she could not hide.

The Third Scientific Session This session chaired by Dr. Mohamed Adiwan from the faculty of Arts and Humanities in Rabat –Morocco. It included three scientific interventions: The first intervention: “Translation of the Quran and Recitations: Question of Possibility and Question of Relationship” by Professor. Dr. Khaled Al-Saqi, director of the Mohammed sixth Institute for Quranic recitations in Rabat. In his presentation, Dr. Saki dealt with the issue of recitations from the perspective of translation and then from the perspective of foreign languages. This presentation falls into two parts: A theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical aspect can be summed up in the following points: 1-The differences between the recitations do not affect the meaning, so, they do not affect the translation. 2- Some structures may differ and do not affect the meaning, so they do not affect the translation. 3-Difference of structure in the recitation itself affects the meaning, and therefore it affects the translation. Regardless of the category of the variable element of the meaning: the effect of the translation revolves with the effect in the meaning.As for the practical aspect, the speaker raised the following problem: To what extent translators respect the recitations/ narrations in general? To illustrate this problem, he focused on the comparison of Ould Bbah, Chiadmi, and Yusuf Ali translations, in which he concludes that the recitation or narration is not often respected in translation and does not care much about the location of recitation. The conclusion was that the translator must be knowledgeable of recitations / narrations or has to seek the help of specialists. If so, he or she should: 1- Match the translation to recitation / narration.2- Indicate in the margin the diversity of recitations/ narrations.3- Entrust the translation to those who check it before printing and publishing it. The second presentation: “Sibawyeh’s care about the Quranic recitation via Al Kitab(the book)” by Professor Dr Mohammed Jamil Mubarak .Faculty of Shariaa, Ait Melloul- Morocco-. Dr. Jamil inaugurated his presentation by referring to the influence of linguists on understanding the meanings of the Holy Quran. The recitations are one branch of the Qur’anic sciences, indicating that weakness in the mastery of Arabic language leads to weakness in understanding the Qur’anic text which will weaken faith. Based on this perception, the researcher Professor highlighted the great importance enjoyed by the Quranic text in the Arab-Islamic culture at the level of study and research. Considering the characteristics of this linguistic entity as a sacred text revealed in a clear Arabic language. It is necessary to reconsider the relationships between sciences that conceive this text from multiple angles. According to this, the researcher found that Sibawyeh is one of the founders of the idea of understanding the Holy Quran. His interest in the Quranic recitations is due to his care about the Quranic text. He held it as a source of reference based on several scientific and cognitive streams, mainly:- What he learnt from his teachers.- And his culture, which was gained from knowledge of Hadith and Narrators.For the professor, the science of recitations does not require discretion, but it relies on its known theoretical and cognitive foundations. Hence, the researcher thrived to answer the following problematic question: What is the volume of the recitations contained in the “book” of Sibaweyh? The researcher pinpointed that the reader to the above mentioned point will see that the recitations in the “book” are not abundant, since they mention only what is imposed by the need for reference. So, his approach was characterized by citing recitations as a part of citing the Quran.As a matter of fact, citing the Quran is a manifestation of the multiplicity of recitations, which urged the researcher to determine the expressions of this pluralism as follows:1 – Mentioning the recitations without confirmation or verification. 2 – Naming the recite 3 – Keeping the reciter anonymous  4 – The use of phrases as: we heard 5 – Mentioning the source  6 – Assuming the recitation 7 – The use of hearing 8 – The use of the update.9 – The use of claim 10 – The use of he “says”- “Meaning” reads “. At the end of his scientific paper, the researcher found that the book by “Sibaweyh” is a historical landmark that contributed besides the Quranic studies in discussing the issues of science with multiple recitations, which characterized the efforts of linguists and reciters so as to serve the Quranic text. The third presentation is “Homage and Loyalty to our Professor Dr. Al-Tuhami Al-Raji, the Sheikh of Reciters” by Professor Dr. Ibrahim Al-Wafi from Faculty of Shariaa, Ait Melloul.  It was inaugurated by thanking the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, all the professors of the Arabic Language department and other contributors in honoring Dr. Al-Tuhami Al-Raji. Dr. Al-Wafi has divided his speech into two sections: he addressed in the first section the meanings of “homage and loyalty” which reflects according to him a uniqueness of virtues, good traits and generous acts. Homage is God Almighty’s trust, and deity’s approach asserted in his book. God Almighty mentioned it in its original form and motivational meanings. All of which proves Almighty’s desire to pay tribute to those who merit it depending on their virtue, effects, impact and influence. And the basis of public honor, according to the speaker, what came in the right of the sons of Adam in the verse: “And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference.” [Surah Al Isra, verse 70]. God honor to Human beings is at levels; it includes honoring all Prophets and Messengers, from which he endowed Mohammed peace be upon him with special compliment in different contexts and various Quranic occasions and settings, as when he says: “O Prophet, indeed We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner”. The verse and also:” Mohammed is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the Prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing”; the verse. Other aspects of God’s honoring his Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him is the lasting of his message and its eternity. The honoring exceeds the Prophets to their disciples, friends and nations. Dr. Al-Wafi figured out that the honoring in the Holy Qur’an came in four categories: The first is the self honoring of the Creator, the second the creator’s honoring to the created and the third is the honoring of the created to the creator by following his commands and avoiding his prohibitions. The fourth is related to the honoring of the created to each other, and this is what the Quran referred to as the promise. The presenter cited for each category from the Holy Quran.The second part of the intervention was a certificate in the merit of the celebrated Dr. Al-Tuhami Al-Raji, who, according to Dr. Al-Wafi, is a practical figure who accumulated an enormous experience in the administrative, educational and scientific fields for more than two thirds of a century which allows this personality to gain  multiple and unique skills. For example, his ability to communicate and influence people and his speed in valuating, governance, arbitration and framing, in addition to his various creations in the field of linguistics as well as in the field of readings has the right to be described Sheikh of reciters. At the end, Dr. Al-Wafi called for his health, wellness and longevity. He also thanked the attendees for taking the trouble to travel to participate in this honor. The second Day of the Seminar. The Fourth session: the session was chaired by Dr. Ahmed Bazoui ADDawi from the Faculty of Arts and Humanities in El-Jadida. It included two scientific interventions: The first intervention: “Comparative linguistic studies and their impact on Dr. Al-Tuhami Al-Raji’s approach” by Professor Dr. Ahmed Karoum, from Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Agadir .     Dr. Ahmed Karoum began his intervention by asking the following question: Did the Prophet (peace be upon him) recite the Quran on several modes before the occurrence of these narratives that tell about differences in the recitations? Is the difference in recitations a result of the difference in Arabic dialects? Dr. Karoum pursues that Dr. Al – Tuhami Al – Raji was able to answer these questions based on research that lasted  years, starting  in the mid – sixties of the last century, and continued throughout the scientific process of the honored.Since the publication of the second edition of Daawate Al Haq magazine in 1965, he has been diligent in checking the facts studiously and with objectivity. He mentioned expressions in all the dialects of the Arabs: Asad, Tamim, Jorhom, Qais, Ghailan, Ghassan, Bani Hanifa, hadramawte. Then he counted the vocabulary of the Aramic language in Quran, and issued series of Quranic recitations: where he addressed a number of topics, including:• Warsh attitude towards Nafia• The linguistic situation of a set of letters: isolated Hamza , Hamza associated with the Mim, the static Hamza after the non-Hamza existence, and the anterior or posterior Hamza . His researches were in the form of articles dealing with models of recitations inference, such as his article about denotative Haa al kinaya in the Holy Quran, and he also did a linguistic inquiry for a lengthy explanation of Almohitt dictionary. He was interested in the linguistic study as well.    Dr. Ahmed Karoum invited the researchers to pay attention to the languages of the Quran in order to hone the Quranic recitations. He pointed out that the difference in recitations might be due to differences in Arabic dialects. The interpreter cannot do without these dialects in the Holy Quran. The conclusion reached by Dr. Karoum is that Dr. Al-Raji’s approach was characterized by three   rules:1- Relying on mastering the theoretical framework2- The deduction of the studied phenomena3- Comparison of the studied phenomena The second intervention: “The approach of Shaykh Al-Tuhami Al-Raji in dealing with the Holy Quran in terms of recitation, understanding, meditation and reflection” by Professor Najib Al-Amari from the delegation of the Ministry of Education, Al Hoceima- Morocco. Mr. Al-Amari inaugurated his intervention by thanking all those who worked hard to organize this scientific seminar be it professors, institutional bodies and the organizing committee. He talked about his upcoming project in which he collected all that was written by Dr. Al-Tuhami Al-Raji in prose. He is working on its publication under the title of “the process of a scholar and the example of a learner”, which he summed up in another book, entitled “the Guide to discover the Bahalil’s world.”Then he spoke about Sheikh Tahami Al-Raji ‘s approach and considered it as care and attention worthy, as it was the secret behind the return of the recitation class to the Moroccan scientific community after a long absence , thought of by those interested in the Quranic recitations science as everlasting. This unique and proper approach, which was followed by Sheikh Al-Raji, added to the Quranic recitations science that scientific subject nature and the characteristics associated with the modern linguistic activity to the extent of intertwining and inability to distinguish, sometimes analyzing their phenomena and comparing it in others. It is clear that the approach of the Sheikh is based on justice given the Quranic recitations. He has started from the development and innovation, making them priorities of his approach in dealing with the Holy Quran, which contains the rules of the Arabic language integrated and mutually supportive such as grammar, rhetoric sciences, linguistic foundations and phonetic rules.Sheikh Al Rajhi’s approach can be summed up in the following elements:- The presence of the reform sense in his approach.- His mastery of the educational and instructional process.- His outstanding style in dealing with Quranic recitations.- His stance towards calligraphy and interruption as two mechanisms of Quranic interpretation.- His interest in the useful meanings in memorizing and understanding the Quran.- His use of linguistics and scientific empirical results.Sheikh Al-Rajhi’s style of dealing with the Qur’anic recitations was characterized by features based on the following principles:  His perspective started from the theory that one recitation or one mode of recitation does not reflect on its own but part of the God Almighty intention which means that God’s will is indivisible. Therefore all recitations must be present to completely understand his Almighty’s.- The use of exegesis foundations and his interest in it in terms of guidance. He tastes it so as to raise the readership’s admiration. – His interest includes recitations’ rhetorical inimitability.- His refuse of weighing and comparing frequent recitations.- His employ of the method of performance in conveying God Almighty intention, and stating it with practical samples.  And referring to some of the guidance of Sheikh Arraji, as in calligraphy as a tool for the interpreter, as if the interruption is a position taken by the reciters and adopt it … And many other examples.    Dr. Ahmed Bazawi Al-Ddawi (Session Chairman) summarized this morning session in a number of points in his presentation of some of Sheikh Al-Raji’s abilities which characterized his approach, namely:- The educational ability of motivating students to inquire the information.- The ability to correct the methodological and cognitive problematic, reformulate it, analyze it and suggest a solution, and then be able to verify the validity of this solution.- The ability to monitor and use the various sources of necessary information.- The ability to set goals, because he has a strategic thinking, or so-called in foundations “Oussol”, goal-oriented thinking. It starts from setting priorities, then graduation, then Fiqh of the outcomes, then the Fiqh of costing.- The ability to combine theorization and application.- The ability to understand, and combine the components of the methodological approach, which gathers description, analysis and comparison.- The ability to operate intellectual property through the understanding of phenomena and situations and the development of aesthetic sense in humans.- The ability to analyze, build and compare. Readiness to resolve problems.- The ability to undertake and adopt projects.- The ability to use and develop memory.- The creative ability and practice of aesthetic sense.- The ability to communicate successfully and effectively.- The ability to assess and self-assessment. The Fifth session: this session was chaired by Dr. Khadija Iker; from Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Al-Jadida. It included two scientific interventions. The first intervention: “The prosodic phenomena and Quranic Recitations” by Prof. Dr. Ahmed Al Baybi from the Interdisciplinary faculty of ER- Rashidiya – Marocco.Dr. Al-Bayibi began with an informative preface in which he spoke about the subject of the work of the phonetics and limited it in two elements; the phonemes and the prosodies from the European phonological perspective, or the segmental units and the suprasegmental units from the American phonological perspective. He then explained the meaning of the ” prosodic phenomena by saying: “It’s those phonetic embellishments that exceed segments and acts beyond tonic and phonetic compounds and the sayings “.It’s known in the phonetic tradition as tone, melody, pitch, pause, length and rhythm. The professor goes on to say that the Quranic recitations are full of prosodic phenomena. He defended his idea by presenting a number of arguments, the most important of which is the phonetic nature of the Quran by revelation or transfer, as well as through Arabic tunes and prosodic features. Besides, the recited reading and the impact of the Quranic prosody. Dr. Al-Bayibi proved a series of texts that confirm the aural revelation of Quran from God to Jibrael and then to the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and his companions. This care in transferring, according to the Bayibi, reflects a desire to deliver the most accurate performance as in pause and tuning, lengthening, exaggeration and softening, etc., because these phenomena deviate the meaning and change it. The second claim is that Arabs are in the Holy Quran , so there are prosodic features and the texts that indicate that are,  according to the lecturer, numerous. As in the Hadith that calls to read the Quran in the language of the Arabs: (recite the Quran in the tunes and voices of Arabs), and noted that a group of scholars admit that Imala is a melody of Arabs while they differed about the pitch which are prosodic components. These melodic aspects have an important contribution in attracting and influencing the souls. The third claim concerns the aesthetic recitation; it is a recitation that contributes to the improvement of the letters and the presentation of prosodic features. Hence, Al-Bayibi concluded the contribution of the Qur’anic recitations in fusing phonetic aspects in general and prosodic features in particular.The second intervention: ” Lengthening for Recitation Scholars: a Phonetic Study” by Prof. Dr. Abdel Hamid Zahid and Dr. Abdel Aziz Ait baha, from the Knowledge Integration and Translation Laboratory; Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Marrakech. This intervention was the last in the morning. Dr. Ait Baha began his intervention with the definition of lengthening, while citing scholars’ justification to lengthening, and focused on the length of time in his explanation. Then he addressed the various names of the tide phenomenon mentioned by scientists. He concluded that each of the names and attributes is due to the property of the characteristics of the phonemes, either in terms of their articulation and pronunciation or in terms of their physical and acoustic nature, highlighting that early interpretation in this regard was right.Then, Dr. Ait Baha dealt with the difference between the letters of lengthening and the soft letters. He explained that lengthening letters are pure accents, but the soft letters are semi-silent form an accent with the Al Fatha. He conceived an assessment for lengthening. He divided it into four sections, pointing at the same time to the moral factor as well as the verbal factor in lengthening. Considering that the first is an exaggeration lengthening in essence, while the increase of Hamz is a manifestation of the second. He then divide the lengthening of Hamz – based on  Samin El Halabi – into three sections; a section where the Hamz and lengthening are  in one word, and a section where they are located in two words, and a last section where  Hamz is before lengthening . Dr. Ait Baha concluded his statement by pointing out that the reciters relied on their perception of the phenomenon of lengthening and on their sensuous flair and abstract observation, without the existence of modern phonetic tools, as in the modern era. They distinguished between the letters of lengthening, which are considered pure movements, and the soft letters which are semi-silent. Adding that, early scholars addressed the linguistic and non-linguistic factors in satiating lengthening. Honoring Session: the meeting was moderated by Dr. Moulay Mustafa Abu Hazem; from Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Marrakech. The first testimony was by Dr. Abu Hazem, who presided the session, and considered the honored a symbol of generosity and serenity in this country, and an iconic model in it, and it is necessary to honor him as a moral, national and religious due. Dr. Abu Hazem gave the floor to Dr. Abdel Hadi Hmito, who spoke about his human relationship with the honored Sheikh, which lasted for thirty-seven years, where he was supervised by him in Masters and Doctorate research and concluded his speech with a poem that he wrote. Then Dr. Idris Al-Naqouri took the floor and expressed his gratitude to participate in Sheikh Al-Raji honoring as an old professor and friend. He spoke of his indirect relationship at work in early 1960s that extended to the mid-1980s.A direct relationship where he discovered other aspects of the character of the honored, through what the honored wrote in the field of language and the Quranic sciences and phonetic as well as linguistic researches and other works published in Daawat Al Haq magazine and printed books. In addition to proofreading of many valuable patrimonial books, which showed Professor Raji’s mastery of various languages such as Syriac, Persian, Greek and Hebrew in addition to the known languages. Then Dr. Abu Hazem gave the floor to one of the students of Dr. Al-Raji, Professor Al-Mahrazi Al-Alaoui, who studied under his supervision in the late 1980s. He talked about a number of scientific aspects that characterized Professor Al-Raji, especially his ability to read the Quran in al known recitations. He also defended the doctoral students during their defense, encouraging them, aspiring for their progress and their scientific improvement. Dr. Ahmed Bazoui, a student who received his education under the supervision of Professor Al-Tuhami Al-Raji in the early seventies, recounted a number of facts he had with Dr. Al-Raji, which showed distinct aspects of the honoree’s personality, especially his support for the appointment of new faculty members, as well as his distinctive human personality. Dr. Abdel Hadi Dahani gave a speech about the honored, and summarized it in three points:- The honoree’s humility. This is an attribute of the Sheikh, he was usually described by; especially in his relationship with teachers and students.- Supporting and guiding students, where the professor has always encouraged students and motivated them, and urged them to continue, and helped them to complete their research by giving a hand.-Great appreciation, respect and embrace for the Quran reciters, his love for the book of God and remembrance made him pay special attention to his Quran disciples. Then Professor Mohammed Al-Youssfi gave a speech on this occasion, expressing his great admiration and respect for the honored professor, who combined many qualities, expressed by Professor Al-Youssfi as follows: Perseverance, goodness, generosity, charity, wisdom, zeal, devotion and love of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Cleverness, intelligence, wit, dignity, and other human qualities that characterize dear honored. The series of honorary interventions concluded with a speech by Professor Abdelhamid Zahid, who‘s acquaintance with the honoree lasts for nearly two decades. These are the years that make the testimony of Professor Zahid, the testimony of a grandson and a testimony of consideration, not a testimony of rhetoric and inference, or just additional words. His relationship with the honored professor lasts for years. It is the relationship of a spiritual father to a disciple. Professor Zahid highlighted that his love for the honored is an indescribable; a love only describable in the silent language not in the language of speech. The ceremonial session ended by reciting two poems, the first by the poet Sandak and the second by Said Waazouz delivered on his behalf by the researcher Mohamed Wassksso. At the end, the floor was given to Dr. Al-Tuhami Al-Raji, who touched upon the meaning of the word “testimony” in the Holy Quran and its secrets, linguistically and calligraphically. He also urged students to adhere to the Holy Quran and recite it with its ten recitations. At the end, he thanked everyone who participated in these scientific days. Then, the organizers handed over the honorary shield and a collection of commemorative presents to the honoree:  Dr. Tuhami Al-Raji.

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